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Part Two: Primary Data Collection/ Windshield Survey (50
points/150 total points)
Windshield surveys are a form of direct observation that
involves making visual observations of a neighborhood or
community while driving – literally “looking through the
windshield”. Windshield surveys are a relatively inexpensive,
time-efficient method for assessing the social environment of a
community. The purpose of the windshield survey is to gain a
better understanding of the environment you are studying to
provide insight to the resources available in a community.
Specifically, windshield surveys allow for the observation of
neighborhood boundaries, the people, use of open spaces,
housing conditions, shopping areas, schools, religious facilities,
human services (such as hospitals and clinics), modes of
transportation, protective services (such as fire and police
stations), social/environmental determinants of health, and the
overall neighborhood life in the community.
When you are planning a time to complete this windshield
survey, you will need to enlist a driver so that you can truly
focus on viewing the community “through the windshield” and
collect photographs. You will need to take at least 3 photographs
for each category of the Windshield Survey. Pictures need to
reflect both assets of the community as well as challenges within
the community. You will also need to include your observations
of each category for this assignment (such as condition of
facilities, presence or absence of services, etc.). Do not take
pictures of the community when children are present (must take
this into consideration specifically when documenting
elementary, middle, and high schools within the community).
Once you collect all the photographs and observations for this
assignment, you will organize them in a PowerPoint
presentation with one category per slide. Remember, you will
need a minimum of 3 photographs per category. You must
clearly label each photograph on the slide. You will list the
observations described above (such as condition of facilities,
presence or absence of services r/t health of community and
each specific category, etc.) in the notes section of the
PowerPoint presentation. You must also describe at least 2 assets
to health and 2 barriers to health for each category (more is ok)
in the notes section of each slide.
Critically thinking about what you observe is necessary to
understand the potential impact of the community resources
and deficits in your chosen community. Providing
documentation about what you see and think about each
category in relation to the health of the community is a very
important component of this assignment.
The final slides of the PowerPoint presentation should
summarize your overall analysis of the community. Include how
the assets and barriers/challenges in the community may affect
the health of community members. This can be a short narrative
or a bulleted list, but must demonstrate critical thinking. You
may also consider narrating/adding your voice to this summary
slides (see rubric for additional expectations).

Categories:

• Amenities and Open Spaces: This may include,
but is not limited to parks, tennis courts,
walking/biking trails, public pools, recreational
facilities/clubs, movie theaters, sports arenas,
skating rinks. Well maintained? Public
transportation available to these areas?

• Transportation: Visible public transportation such
as buses, cabs, trains, subways. Private
cars/SUVs, motorcycles, bikes. Poorly or well
maintained? New or old? Weather coverings for
public transportation waiting areas? Available
throughout the community or only specific areas?

• Safety: Police presence, people mingling, children
playing, active or inactive neighborhoods,
presence of gangs, fortified buildings or not (eg.
bars on the windows).

• Commercial Buildings and areas: types of retail
stores, check-cashing establishments, strip malls,
liquor stores, tobacco stores, shopping malls,
small neighborhood stores, evidence of industry
(eg. Factories in use or abandoned). Well
maintained or not? Public transportation
available?

• Government offices: police station, fire station,
town hall, court house, health department, other
government agencies.

• Health Services: Public clinics (FQHCs/
Community Health Centers), hospitals,
Emergency rooms, private doctor’s offices,
drug/alcohol treatment facilities, pharmacies,
other health-related buildings and services.

• Schools: Public and private elementary, middle
and high schools, colleges, technical/trade
schools.

• Housing: types of residences (eg. single-family
homes, condos, apartments, mobile home parks,
row houses) and condition (poorly or well
maintained), condition of lawns or common
areas, size of dwellings (large or small, or a mix),
subsidized housing, shelters.

• Religion: Religious facilities present or absent,
types (eg. churches, synagogues, mosques).

Part Two: Primary Data Collection/Windshield Survey Rubric

Include an introductory slide with student name and course number/section,
community (city) name, county, and state

N/A

Photographs: no less than 3 photographs per category, including clear labels.
Photographs must be appropriate for the category

13.5 points
(1.5 points per
category)

Observations: Narrative observation of the condition of the the
building/spaces captured in the photos.
In addition, students must include a bulleted list of at least 2 assets and 2
barriers/challenges you see in each category in relation to the impact on the
health of the community.

18 points (2
points per
category)

Overall Impression slide: 1. What was the most unexpected thing you
learned during this survey? 2. What additional questions about the
community have emerged from completing the windshield survey?

4 points

Summary slides: Review and synthesize your findings related to the
individual categories to develop a summary statement for both (1 statement
per slide):
1. assets
2. barriers/challenges.
***Think about how these assets and barriers/challenges affect the health of
the community members and include this information in your brief summary
statements.
In addition, students will identify at least 2 probable health issues in this
community r/t the observations made during this assignment.
Must show evidence of critical thinking in relation to how the environment
affects health of the community members.

14.5 points

TOTAL POINTS 50 points

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Part Three: Primary Data Collection/Key Informant
Interviews (35 points/150 total points)
Key informant interviews are qualitative in-depth interviews
with people who know what is going on in the community. The
purpose of the key informant interviews is to collect information
from a wide range of people including community leaders
and/or professionals who have first-hand knowledge about the
community. These community experts, with their particular
knowledge and understanding, can provide insight on the assets
of a community and nature of problems, and give
recommendations for solutions. Two common techniques used
to conduct key informant interviews are telephone interviews
and face-to-face interviews.
For this assignment, you will identify two people in your
community to interview. Examples of people to contact may be:
healthcare provider, social worker, community-based agency
director, first responder, outreach worker, safety net provider,
mayor, city council member, epidemiologist, director of free
clinic, community/public health nurse, etc. Students must choose
people from different agencies/organizations and different
professions (may not choose 2 first-responders, may not choose
2 nurses, may not choose people that work within the same
agency/organization, etc). Students that choose 2 people from
the same agency/organization or same profession will receive a
30% deduction in the overall earned grade for this assignment.
A few of the goals of conducting key informant interviews
include:

• Gathering information about the community from well-
connected, informed community experts.

• Understand the motivation and beliefs of community
residents.

• Gather information from people of diverse backgrounds
and opinions and be able to ask in-depth probing
questions.

• Discuss sensitive topics, get respondent’s candid
discussion of the topic, or to get in depth information
needed.

Planning the Key Informant Interviews:
• Gather and review existing data from previous

Community Assessment assignments
• Determine what information is needed
• Select the type of interview (phone or face-to-face).
• Develop an interview tool (see below)
• Determine documentation method (written, recorded)
• Conduct the key informant interview
• Compile and organize key informant interview data

Developing an interview tool
• Write an outlined script
• Use open ended questions to gather information on the

informants’ opinions and beliefs
Inlude these questions or an appropriate adaptation of these
questions. Add/expand questions that are relevant to the chosen
community and based on the results of your windshield survey.
Interview questions:

• What are the issues facing the community?
• What has happened that makes you believe this is an

issue? Tell me more about that.
• Who does this affect?
• How does it affect them? [Encourage them to be

specific.]
• What are some of the causes this issue?
• What are some of the key assets of the community?
• How does the community use its assets to address

issues?
• What do you think are the priorities and goals of the

community?
Analyzing the Interview Data: There are several ways to analyze
the information you have received. Usually it is a good idea to
sit down right after the interview and put your thoughts on
paper: a summary, your impressions of the key informant’s
feelings and anything else that seems relevant. You need to
critically evaluate your key informant data based on your
knowledge of the issues/assets and your community. You will
address the following questions in a 3-4 page scholarly paper
(this is 3-4 pages for the body of the paper, not including title
page):

• Information about who you interviewed by identifying
their role (healthcare provider, social worker,
community-based agency director, first responder,
outreach worker, safety net provider, mayor, city
council, epidemiologist, director of free clinic,
community/public health nurse, etc.)

• For each informant, explain why they are considered
community experts in the community.

• Describe the general focus of your questions, and also
include the specific questions asked.

• Summarize the qualitative data obtained from each of
the key informants; are there similarities, are there
differences?

• Describe the themes that emerged (including use of
unattributed quotes when these would help enliven the
description).

• What are the implications of this qualitative data related
to the health and well-being of the community?

Part Three: Primary Data Collection/ Key Informant Interviews

Description of Key Informant Interviews: Must include professions/roles, why
these informants are experts within the community, general focus of the
interview, the questions asked of the informants, and summary of responses.

10 points

Analysis of interview: What were the similarities and differences of the
interviews? What themes emerged? What are the implications of these
assets/barriers on the health of the community?

20 points

Use of proper APA format (eg. title page, page numbers, etc.).
Professionally written without errors in spelling or grammar; must include an
introduction and conclusion

5 points

TOTAL POINTS 35 points

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Part Four: Secondary Data Collection, Analysis & Planning
(50 points/ 150 total points)
For this part of the Community Assessment, you will gather
online data about your community, and compare this
information to the state and national data. You will then create a
Community Health Nursing Diagnosis and determine possible
interventions within your community. You will need to collect
data that is specific to your community and potential health
issues. Be very thorough in your data collection. The end
product of this assignment will be to determine a potential health
problem within your community from the data, create a
Community Health Nursing Diagnosis, and identify a plan to
implement interventions specific to the group/population/or
community. Critically think about what information you need to
make recommendations about the health status of your
community and collect data that will support those
recommendations. Suggested websites to begin looking for data
are the U.S. Census Bureau, National Center for Health
Statistics, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, your
state health department, and the University of Wisconsin
Population Health Institute. There are also many more websites
that may prove to helpful listed under the “Web Links” tab on
the left side of the Blackboard shell.
Data Table:
You must collect at least 10 unique data sets (one set is the
community/county vs. state vs. nation), but you may collect
more if you wish. You will enter the data you collect into a table
that you create and provide direct links to the location/table
where you gathered the information. Below is an example of a
data table:
Description of the data set,
including year

City/County
(must state
which in box
below)

State National

Population, 2015
(United States Census
Bureau, 2015)

28, 758
(include the
specific url to
the data)

9,562,685
(include the specific
url to the data)

320,956,485
(include the specific
url to the data)

Median Household Income,
2010-2014
(United States Census
Bureau, 2015)

$42,598
(include the
specific url to
the data)

$51,386
(include the specific
url to the data)

$55,843
(include the specific
url to the data)

The following is a list of possible data to collect (yes, it is ok to
include the data from Part One of this assignment, as you will
compare your community data to the state and nation). Include
data which is relevant to issues and assets discovered
through your windshield survey and key informant
interviews.

• Population
• Median Age
• Mortality Rate
• Infant Mortality Rate
• Leading cause of death
• Age distribution
• Birth Rate
• Cause Specific death rate
• Crime rate
• Educational attainment
• Gender
• Household Income
• Infant mortality
• Leading Health Indicators for identified community

(may use county or state health indicators)
• Marital status
• Mortality Rate
• Occupation
• Per Capita income
• Population-size and distribution
• Poverty rate
• Race/ Ethnicity
• Single family households
• Single parent households
• Unemployment rate
• Hospitalizations by diagnoses
• Sexually transmitted diseases
• Teenage pregnancy

These are examples; you may collect other data points as long as
you are able to compare city/county data to the state and the
nation. If you are unable to find city data for a specific item, you
may use county data (be sure to indicate this on your data table).
Data must be comparable within each data set; meaning collect
rates for all data points or percentages for all (so that we can
compare “apples to apples”).
Analysis:
In addition and in narrative form:

• Analyze the data and provide a narrative summary of your
findings.

• Discuss whether your data findings are reflective of
community health concerns and challenges, assets, both.

• Describe whether the identified secondary data support
earlier assessment findings from your windshield survey,
key informant interviews, and other community data
previously assessed.

• From the data collected and analyzed, identify an issue
relevant to the health and well-being of the community or a
group/population within the community.

• Create a Community Health Nursing Diagnosis relevant to
your community and based on information gathered in all 4
parts of the Community Assessment (see info below on
how to write a Community Health Nursing Diagnosis)

• Identify a goal within the Health People 2030
document which is relevant to your chosen health issue
and describe the interventions outlined within the HP2030
to improve the outcomes of this health issue, and determine
if these interventions would be appropriate for your
community based on your knowledge and info gathered
previously, OR propose different community health
interventions for your specific
group/population/community.

Your analysis should be 3 paragraphs at minimum. You must
use proper APA format (eg. in-text citations and reference page),
provide rationale and show evidence of critically thinking,
Community Health Nursing Diagnosis
The community health diagnosis is a foundation of community
health nursing practice. The diagnosis sets the groundwork for
community health nursing goals of reducing health risks by
identifying the risks and factors that contribute to the risk.
Analysis of the collected primary and secondary data reveals
health problems in the community.
Written community health nursing diagnoses differ significantly
from those written for the individual. Identified problems or
health risks are stated in a community health nursing diagnosis.
The community health nursing diagnosis format you will use is
as follows:

1. Problem: (a specific problem or health risk in the
community)

2. Population: (the specific group or population that is
affected by the problem/risk)

3. Related to: (strength and weaknesses in the
community that influence the specific problem or
health risk in the community, including statistics
and/or primary/secondary data collected from previous
parts of the Community Assessment assignment)

4. As evidenced by: (use the statistical and/or other data
that when analyzed identified the problem or health
risk)

You have already gathered and analyzed all the information you
need to write the community health nursing diagnosis in the
previous four steps of this assignment. So, this step should be
fairly straightforward.
Below is an example of a Community Nursing Diagnosis.

• Risk of increased incidence of teenage pregnancy
among teens in High Life county related to increased
sexual activity (56% of females ages 15-19 are
sexually active in High Life county as compared to
46% of females ages 15-19 nationally [Centers for
Disease Control [CDC], 2012]) and the non-use of
contraceptives (63% of females ages 15-19 do not use
contraception during sexual intercourse in High Life
county compared to 51% nationally [CDC, 2012]) as
evidenced by a teenage pregnancy rate of 72/1,000 in
females ages 15-19 as compared to 68/1,000
nationally (CDC, 2012).

Centers for Disease Control. (2012). Morbidity and mortality
weekly report. Retrieved from
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml
/mm6102a1.htm?s_cid=mm6102a1_e

Part Four: Secondary Data Collection, Analysis, & Planning Rubric

Data sets: Minimum 10 unique data sets presented in a table comparing
city/county, state and national data

15 points (1.5
points per data
set/row on your
table)

Analysis: does data corroborate or conflict with information gathered in
previous sections of the Community Assessment?

Identify an issue relevant to the health and well-being community based on
the data presented here and previous data collected for other parts of the CA
assignment. Refer to the HP 2030 document and identify the issue within
the national health goals. Describe interventions that are outlined in
HP2030 for this type of community/population and health issue, and would
work IN YOUR COMMUNITY based on your knowledge and information
gathered, OR propose other interventions you believe would work within
the identified community/group/population.

20 points

Community Health Nursing Diagnosis 10 points

APA 7th edition format: proper in-text citations (for narrative only), title
page in student paper format, page numbers, reference page (for narrative
only)

5 points

TOTAL POINTS 50 points

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