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F o u r t e e n t h E d i t i o n

Essentials of
Organizational Behavior

Stephen P. Robbins
San Diego State University

Timothy A. Judge
The Ohio State University

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The rights of Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge to be identified as the authors of this work have been asserted by them in accor-
dance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

Authorized adaptation from the United States edition, entitled Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 14th Edition, ISBN 978-0-13-
452385-9 by Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge, published by Pearson Education © 2018.

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ment of this book by such owners.

ISBN 10: 1-292-22141-0
ISBN 13: 978-1-292-22141-0

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This book is dedicated to our friends and colleagues in
The Organizational Behavior Teaching Society

who, through their teaching, research and commitment
to the leading process, have significantly

improved the ability of students
to understand and apply OB concepts.

A01_ROBB1410_14_GE_FM.indd 5 26/05/17 2:48 PM


PART 1 An Introduction 31

Chapter 1 Welcome to the World of OB 31

PART 2 Individual Differences 47

Chapter 2 Attitudes 47
Chapter 3 Emotions 60
Chapter 4 Personality Factors 77
Chapter 5 Perceptual Processes 95
Chapter 6 Valuing Diversity 113
Chapter 7 Basic Motivation 130
Chapter 8 Applied Motivation 150

PART 3 Groups in Organizations 166

Chapter 9 Communication 166
Chapter 10 Basics of Group Behavior 182
Chapter 11 From Groups to Teams 200
Chapter 12 Characteristics of Leaders 216
Chapter 13 Power and Politics in Organizations 237
Chapter 14 Conflict in Organizations 256

PART 4 Organizational Systems 275

Chapter 15 Organization Structure and Design 275
Chapter 16 Creating and Maintaining Organizational Culture 295
Chapter 17 Organizational Change 315


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Preface 22

Acknowledgments 29

About the Authors 30

PART 1 An Introduction 31

Chapter Warm-up 31

Management and Organizational Behavior 32

Organizational Behavior (OB) Defined 33
Effective versus Successful Managerial Activities 33

Watch It—Herman Miller: Organizational Behavior 34

Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study 34

Big Data 35
Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field 36

Psychology 36
Social Psychology 36
Sociology 37
Anthropology 37

There Are Few Absolutes in OB 37

Challenges and Opportunities for OB 38

Continuing Globalization 38
Workforce Demographics 40
Workforce Diversity 40
Social Media 40
Employee Well-Being at Work 41
Positive Work Environment 41
Ethical Behavior 42

Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model 42

Overview 42
Inputs 43
Processes 43
Outcomes 44

Summary 45
Implications for Managers 45
Personal Inventory Assessments: Multicultural Awareness Scale 46

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8 Contents

PART 2 Individual Differences 47

Chapter 2 ATTITUDES 47
Chapter Warm-up 47

Attitudes 47

Watch It—Gawker Media: Attitudes and Job Satisfaction 49

Attitudes and Behavior 49

Job Attitudes 50

Job Satisfaction and Job Involvement 50
Organizational Commitment 50
Perceived Organizational Support 50
Employee Engagement 51

Measuring Job Satisfaction 51

Approaches to Measurement 52
Measured Job Satisfaction Levels 52

What Causes Job Satisfaction? 52

Job Conditions 53
Personality 54
Pay 54
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 54

Outcomes of Job Satisfaction 55

Job Performance 55
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) 55
Customer Satisfaction 55
Life Satisfaction 56

The Impact of Job Dissatisfaction 56

Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) 56
Understanding the Impact 58

Summary 59
Implications for Managers 59
Try It—Simulation: Attitudes & Job Satisfaction 59
Personal Inventory Assessments: Core Self-Evaluation (CSE)
Scale 59

Chapter 3 EMOTIONS 60
Chapter Warm-up 60

What Are Emotions and Moods? 60

The Basic Emotions 61
Moral Emotions 62

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The Basic Moods: Positive and Negative Affect 62
Experiencing Moods and Emotions 63
The Function of Emotions 63

Sources of Emotions and Moods 64

Personality 65
Time of Day 65
Day of the Week 65
Weather 65
Stress 67
Sleep 67
Exercise 67
Age 67
Sex 67

Emotional Labor 68

Controlling Emotional Displays 68
Emotional Dissonance and Mindfulness 69

Affective Events Theory 69

Emotional Intelligence 69

Emotion Regulation 71

Emotion Regulation Influences and Outcomes 71
Emotion Regulation Techniques 71
Ethics of Emotion Regulation 72

Watch It—East Haven Fire Department: Emotions and Moods 72

OB Applications of Emotions and Moods 72

Selection 72
Decision Making 73
Creativity 73
Motivation 73
Leadership 73
Customer Service 74
Job Attitudes 74
Deviant Workplace Behaviors 74
Safety and Injury at Work 75

Summary 75
Implications for Managers 75
Try It—Simulation: Emotions & Moods 76
Personal Inventory Assessments: Emotional Intelligence
Assessment 76

Contents 9

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Chapter Warm-up 77

Personality 77

What Is Personality? 78
Personality Frameworks 79

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 79
The Big Five Personality Model 80
How Do the Big Five Traits Predict Behavior at Work? 81
The Dark Triad 82

Other Personality Attributes Relevant to OB 84

Core Self-Evaluation (CSE) 84
Self-Monitoring 85
Proactive Personality 85

Personality and Situations 85

Situation Strength Theory 86
Trait Activation Theory 87

Values 88

Watch It—Honest Tea: Ethics–Company Mission and Values 88

Terminal versus Instrumental Values 88
Generational Values 89

Linking an Individual’s Personality and Values to the
Workplace 89

Person–Job Fit 89
Person–Organization Fit 90
Other Dimensions of Fit 90

Cultural Values 91

Hofstede’s Framework 91
The GLOBE Framework 92
Comparison of Hofstede’s Framework and the Globe
Framework 92

Summary 94
Implications for Managers 94
Personal Inventory Assessments: Personality Style
Indicator 94

Chapter Warm-up 95

What Is Perception? 95

Factors That Influence Perception 96
Watch It—Orpheus Group Casting: Social Perception and
Attribution 97

10 Contents

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Person Perception: Making Judgments about Others 97

Attribution Theory 97
Common Shortcuts in Judging Others 99

The Link between Perception and Individual Decision
Making 100

Decision Making in Organizations 100

The Rational Model, Bounded Rationality, and Intuition 100
Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making 102

Influences on Decision Making: Individual Differences and
Organizational Constraints 104

Individual Differences 105
Organizational Constraints 106

What about Ethics in Decision Making? 106

Three Ethical Decision Criteria 107
Choosing between Criteria 107
Behavioral Ethics 108
Lying 108

Creativity, Creative Decision Making, and Innovation in
Organizations 108

Creative Behavior 109
Causes of Creative Behavior 109
Creative Outcomes (Innovation) 111

Summary 111
Implications for Managers 111
Try It—Simulation: Perception & Individual Decision
Making 112
Personal Inventory Assessments: How Creative Are
You? 112

Chapter Warm-up 113

Diversity 113

Demographic Characteristics 114
Levels of Diversity 114

Discrimination 115

Stereotype Threat 115
Discrimination in the Workplace 116

Biographical Characteristics 117

Age 117
Sex 118
Race and Ethnicity 119

Contents 11

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Disabilities 119
Hidden Disabilities 120

Other Differentiating Characteristics 121

Religion 121
Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity 121
Cultural Identity 123

Watch It—Verizon: Diversity 123

Ability 123

Intellectual Abilities 123
Physical Abilities 125

Implementing Diversity Management Strategies 125

Attracting, Selecting, Developing, and Retaining Diverse
Employees 126
Diversity in Groups 127
Diversity Programs 128

Summary 128
Implications for Managers 129
Try It—Simulation: Human Resources 129
Personal Inventory Assessments: Intercultural Sensitivity
Scale 129

Chapter Warm-up 130

Motivation 130

Watch It—Motivation (TWZ Role Play) 131

Early Theories of Motivation 131

Hierarchy of Needs Theory 131
Two-Factor Theory 132
McClelland’s Theory of Needs 132

Contemporary Theories of Motivation 134

Self-Determination Theory 134
Goal-Setting Theory 135

Other Contemporary Theories of Motivation 138

Self-Efficacy Theory 138
Reinforcement Theory 140
Equity Theory/Organizational Justice 141
Expectancy Theory 145

Job Engagement 146

12 Contents

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Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation 146
Summary 148
Implications for Managers 148
Try It—Simulation: Motivation 148
Personal Inventory Assessments: Work Motivation Indicator 149

Chapter Warm-up 150

Motivating by Job Design: The Job Characteristics
Model (JCM) 151

Elements of the JCM 151
Efficacy of the JCM 151
Motivating Potential Score (MPS) 152
Cultural Generalizability of the JCM 153

Using Job Redesign to Motivate Employees 153

Job Rotation 153
Relational Job Design 154

Using Alternative Work Arrangements
to Motivate Employees 154

Flextime 155
Job Sharing 156
Telecommuting 157

Using Employee Involvement and Participation (EIP)
to Motivate Employees 157

Cultural EIP 158
Forms of Employee Involvement Programs 158

Using Extrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees 159

What to Pay: Establishing a Pay Structure 159
How to Pay: Rewarding Individual Employees through
Variable-Pay Programs 159

Using Benefits to Motivate Employees 163

Using Intrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees 163

Watch It—ZAPPOS: Motivating Employees through Company
Culture 164

Summary 164
Implications for Managers 165
Try It—Simulation: Extrinsic & Intrinsic Motivation 165
Personal Inventory Assessments: Diagnosing the Need for
Team Building 165

Contents 13

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14 Contents

PART 3 Groups in Organizations 166

Chapter Warm-up 166

Communication 167

Functions of Communication 167
The Communication Process 168

Direction of Communication 168

Downward Communication 169
Upward Communication 169
Lateral Communication 169
Formal Small-Group Networks 170
The Grapevine 170

Modes of Communication 171

Oral Communication 171
Written Communication 172
Nonverbal Communication 172

Choice of Communication Channel 172

Channel Richness 172
Choosing Communication Methods 173
Information Security 174

Persuasive Communication 174
Automatic and Controlled Processing 174
Tailoring the Message 175

Barriers to Effective Communication 176

Filtering 176
Selective Perception 176
Information Overload 176
Emotions 177
Language 177
Silence 177
Communication Apprehension 177
Lying 178

Cultural Factors 178

Cultural Barriers 178
Cultural Context 179
A Cultural Guide 179

Watch It—Communication (TWZ Role Play) 180

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Summary 180
Implications for Managers 181
Try It—Simulation: Communication 181
Personal Inventory Assessments: Communication Styles 181

Chapter Warm-up 182

Groups and Group Identity 183

Social Identity 183
Ingroups and Outgroups 183

Stages of Group Development 184

Watch It— Managing Groups & Teams 184

Group Property 1: Roles 185

Role Perception 186
Role Expectations 186
Role Conflict 186

Group Property 2: Norms 186

Norms and Emotions 187
Norms and Conformity 187
Norms and Behavior 188
Positive Norms and Group Outcomes 188
Negative Norms and Group Outcomes 189
Norms and Culture 190

Group Property 3: Status, and Group Property 4: Size 190
Group Property 3: Status 190
Group Property 4: Size 192

Group Property 5: Cohesiveness, and Group Property
6: Diversity 192

Group Property 5: Cohesiveness 193
Group Property 6: Diversity 193

Group Decision Making 195

Groups versus the Individual 195
Groupthink 196
Groupshift or Group Polarization 197
Group Decision-Making Techniques 197

Summary 198
Implications for Managers 199
Try It—Simulation: Group Behavior 199
Personal Inventory Assessments: Communicating
Supportively 199

Contents 15

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16 Contents

Chapter Warm-up 200

Why Have Teams Become so Popular? 200

Differences between Groups and Teams 201

Types of Teams 202

Problem-Solving Teams 202
Self-Managed Work Teams 202
Cross-Functional Teams 203
Virtual Teams 204
Multiteam Systems 204

Watch It—Teams (TWZ Role Play) 205

Creating Effective Teams 205

Team Context: What Factors Determine Whether
Teams Are Successful? 206
Team Composition 207
Team Processes 210

Turning Individuals into Team Players 212

Selecting: Hiring Team Players 213
Training: Creating Team Players 213
Rewarding: Providing Incentives to Be a
Good Team Player 213

Beware! Teams Aren’t Always the Answer 214
Summary 214
Implications for Managers 214
Try It—Simulation: Teams 215
Personal Inventory Assessments: Team Development
Behaviors 215

Chapter Warm-up 216

Watch It—Leadership (TWZ Role Play) 216

Trait Theories of Leadership 217

Personality Traits and Leadership 217
Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Leadership 218

Behavioral Theories 218

Initiating Structure 218
Consideration 219
Cultural Differences 219

Contingency Theories 219

The Fiedler Model 219

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Situational Leadership Theory 221
Path–Goal Theory 221
Leader–Participation Model 222

Contemporary Theories of Leadership 222

Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory 222
Charismatic Leadership 224
Transactional and Transformational Leadership 226

Responsible Leadership 229

Authentic Leadership 229
Ethical Leadership 230
Servant Leadership 230

Positive Leadership 231

Trust 231
Mentoring 233

Challenges to Our Understanding of Leadership 233

Leadership as an Attribution 233
Substitutes for and Neutralizers of Leadership 234
Online Leadership 235

Summary 235
Implications for Managers 235
Try It—Simulation: Leadership 236
Personal Inventory Assessments: Ethical Leadership
Assessment 236

Chapter Warm-up 237

Watch It—Power and Political Behavior 237

Power and Leadership 238

Bases of Power 238

Formal Power 238
Personal Power 239
Which Bases of Power Are Most Effective? 240

Dependence: The Key to Power 240

The General Dependence Postulate 240
What Creates Dependence? 240
Social Network Analysis: A Tool for Assessing
Resources 241

Power Tactics 242

Using Power Tactics 242

Contents 17

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18 Contents

Cultural Preferences for Power Tactics 243
Applying Power Tactics 244

How Power Affects People 244

Power Variables 244
Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace 245

Politics: Power in Action 246

Definition of Organizational Politics 246
The Reality of Politics 246

Causes and Consequences of Political Behavior 247

Factors Contributing to Political Behavior 247
How Do People Respond to Organizational Politics? 249
Impression Management 250
The Ethics of Behaving Politically 252
Mapping Your Political Career 253

Summary 254
Implications for Managers 255
Try It—Simulation: Power & Politics 255
Personal Inventory Assessments: Gaining Power and
Influence 255

Chapter Warm-up 256

A Definition of Conflict 256

Types of Conflict 258
Loci of Conflict 259

The Conflict Process 259

Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility 260
Stage II: Cognition and Personalization 261
Stage III: Intentions 261
Stage IV: Behavior 262
Stage V: Outcomes 263

Watch It—Gordon Law Group: Conflict and Negotiation 265

Negotiation 265

Bargaining Strategies 265
The Negotiation Process 267

Individual Differences in Negotiation Effectiveness 269

Negotiating in a Social Context 271

Reputation 271
Relationships 272

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Third-Party Negotiations 272
Summary 273
Implications for Managers 273
Personal Inventory Assessments: Strategies for Handling
Conflict 274

PART 4 Organizational Systems 275

Chapter Warm-up 275
What Is Organizational Structure? 276

Work Specialization 276
Departmentalization 277
Chain of Command 278
Span of Control 279
Centralization and Decentralization 280
Formalization 281
Boundary Spanning 281

Common Organizational Frameworks and Structures 282

The Simple Structure 282
The Bureaucracy 283
The Matrix Structure 284

Alternate Design Options 285

The Virtual Structure 285
The Team Structure 286
The Circular Structure 287

The Leaner Organization: Downsizing 287
Why Do Structures Differ? 288

Organizational Strategies 288
Organization Size 290
Technology 290
Environment 290
Institutions 291

Organizational Designs and Employee Behavior 292
Work Specialization 292
Span of Control 292
Centralization 293
Predictability versus Autonomy 293
National Culture 293

Watch It—ZipCar: Organizational Structure 293
Summary 293
Implications for Managers 294

Contents 19

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20 Contents

Try It—Simulation: Organizational Structure 294
Personal Inventory Assessments: Organizational Structure
Assessment 294

Chapter Warm-up 295

Watch It—Organizational Culture (TWZ Role Play) 295

What Is Organizational Culture? 296

A Definition of Organizational Culture 296
Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures? 296
Strong versus Weak Cultures 297
Culture versus Formalization 298

What Do Cultures Do? 298

The Functions of Culture 298
Culture Creates Climate 299
The Ethical Dimension of Culture 299
Culture and Sustainability 300
Culture and Innovation 301
Culture as an Asset 301
Culture as a Liability 302

Creating and Sustaining Culture 303

How a Culture Begins 303
Keeping a Culture Alive 304
Summary: How Organizational Cultures Form 306

How Employees Learn Culture 306

Stories 307
Rituals 307
Symbols 307
Language 308

Influencing an Organizational Culture 308

An Ethical Culture 308
A Positive Culture 309
A Spiritual Culture 310

The Global Context 312
Summary 313
Implications for Managers 313
Try It—Simulation: Organizational Culture 313
Personal Inventory Assessments: Organizational Structure
Assessment 314

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Chapter Warm-up 315

Change 315

Forces for Change 316
Reactionary versus Planned Change 316

Resistance to Change 317

Overcoming Resistance to Change 317
The Politics of Change 319

Approaches to Managing Organizational Change 320

Lewin’s Three-Step Model 320
Kotter’s Eight-Step Plan 320
Action Research 321
Organizational Development 321

Creating a Culture for Change 323

Managing Paradox 323
Stimulating a Culture of Innovation 324
Creating a Learning Organization 325
Organizational Change and Stress 326

Watch It—East Haven Fire Department: Managing Stress 326

Stress at Work 326

What Is Stress? 327
Potential Sources of Stress at Work 328
Individual Differences in Stress 330
Cultural Differences 331

Consequences of Stress at Work 331

Managing Stress 332

Individual Approaches 332
Organizational Approaches 333

Summary 334
Implications for Managers 335
Try It—Simulation: Change 335
Personal Inventory Assessments: Tolerance of Ambiguity
Scale 335

Epilogue 336
Endnotes 337
Glossary 384
Index 393

Contents 21

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This book was created as an alternative to the 600- or 700-page comprehensive text in
organizational behavior (OB). It attempts to provide balanced coverage of all the key
elements comprising the discipline of OB in a style that readers will find both informa-
tive and interesting. We’re pleased to say that this text has achieved a wide following in
short courses and executive programs as well as in traditional courses as a companion
volume to experiential, skill development, case, and readings books. It is currently used
at more than 500 colleges and universities in the United States, Canada, Latin America,
Europe, Australia, and Asia. It’s also been translated into Spanish, Portuguese, Japanese,
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