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11. Assignment 11_

Ethical Decision Making for Leaders: references in APA format use text books as references:

Submit a completed template for analyzing an ethical dilemma following the attached template which include details of the expectations for this assignment. The lessons and resources provide sufficient clarity and background to allow completion of this assignment. You may choose any dilemma for this assignment, but it is highly recommended to choose the dilemma that is planned for the final paper – Analyzing and Solving an Ethical Dilemmas. By using the final paper topic for this assignment, it provides a solid foundation for the final paper and allows for this assignment to have a dual benefit.

Note: Please complete the assignment in the attached Document Assignment – Analyzing an Ethical Dilemma(1) Don’t use separate word document.
Text Book: Business Ethics Now by Andrew W. Ghillyer

4. Assignment 4_

Strategic Project Management: 2 page references in APA format use text books as references:

For your mock project for this class, create a Gantt Chart using Figure 10.11 in the Verzuh text as an example. (Notes: 1. you will want to go back and review chapter 10 of the Verzuh text, particularly pages 201 – 208; 2. you will not be required to perform “Step 5: Assign and level resources.”
Submit 2 pages (not counting cover and references). Use APA format.

Text book: Verzuh, E. (2021). The Fast Forward MBA in Project Management (6ed.).  Hoboken, NJ.  John Wiley & Sons. 

TEMPLATE – Analyzing An Ethical Delimma

Answer all questions in Sections I through VII. Enter your answer below the question and re-format as needed.

I. Identifying the ethical dilemma
.

What is the ethical dilemma to be resolved and who is the decision-maker facing the dilemma i.e. who will need to make a decision and take some action?

State the dilemma using this form: Should (identify the decision-maker) do (Alternative A) or (Alternative B)?

II. Understanding the situation
.

What are the relevant facts to consider in the dilemma stated in Section I?
What kind of evidence (scientific, social, psychological, legal, religious, etc.) is each of these facts?
The information provided under this section must be from a creditable source and be graduate level research with citations.

III. Stakeholders

List the stakeholders involved in the dilemma. Briefly describe each of their interests in the outcome.

IV. Rights and Duties

In this Section, identify which stakeholders have rights that need to be considered, and which stakeholders have a duty to protect each of the rights you identify. Complete the following set of questions for EACH stakeholder you identify as having a right.

Stakeholder with a right:

1. What is the stakeholder’s right?

2. By what authority does the stakeholder have that right?

3. What other stakeholder(s) have a duty to protect the right named in (1) above?

4. What do the stakeholders named in (3) above have to do to perform and uphold their duties?

V. Analyzing Alternative A

1. Restate Alternative A:

2. Teleological Approaches (utilitarianism/consequentialism):

· If Alternative A is done, who, if anyone, will be harmed?

· If Alternative A is done, who, if anyone, will benefit?

· Do the benefits of doing Alternative A outweigh the harms of doing Alternative A, and why?

3. Deontological Approaches (categorical imperative):

A categorical imperative is a value that is so important that it must be upheld in action in order for that action to be ethical. In other words, behavior that violates a categorical imperative is by definition unethical. It is so important that it must be observed regardless of the consequences of doing so.
· Does Alternative A represent a categorical imperative for the decision-maker?

· What is the priority for the decision-maker that will be upheld by adopting Alternative A?

· Why is it so important?

4. Rights and Duties. Refer to your answers in Section IV above to answer these questions.

· If Alternative A is adopted, whose rights will be preserved, and whose rights will be violated?

· If Alternative A is adopted, whose duties will be maintained, and whose duties will be neglected?

VI. Analyzing Alternative B

1. Restate Alternative B:

2. Teleological Approaches (utilitarianism/consequentialism)

· If Alternative B is done, who, if anyone, will be harmed?

· If Alternative B is done, who, if anyone, will benefit?

· Do the benefits of doing Alternative B outweigh the harms of doing Alternative B, and why?

3. Deontological Approaches (categorical imperative):

A categorical imperative is a value that is so important that it must be upheld in action in order for that action to be ethical. In other words, behavior that violates a categorical imperative is by definition unethical. It is so important that it must be observed regardless of the consequences of doing so.
· Does Alternative B represent a categorical imperative for the decision-maker?

· What is the priority for the decision-maker that will be upheld by adopting Alternative B?

· Why is it so important?

4. Rights and Duties – Refer to your answers to Section VI above to answer these questions.

· If Alternative B is adopted, whose rights will be preserved, and whose rights will be violated?

· If Alternative B is adopted, whose duties will be maintained, and whose duties will be neglected?

VII. Making a Decision

 
Make a defensible ethical decision by answering the following questions:
1. Teleological Perspective (Refer to your answers to Question #2 in Sections V and VI)
Which Alternative results in less harm or the greater benefit?

Is this sufficient ground for deciding that this Alternative is the ethical course of action? Why or why not?

2. Deontological Perspective (Refer to your answers to Question #3 in Sections V and VI)
Does ethical behavior in this issue rest upon a categorical imperative?
If so, what is it?

If you have identified a categorical imperative that must be upheld in order for the decision-maker named in Section I to make an ethical decision, which course of action (Alternative A or Alternative B) best supports that categorical imperative? Why?

3. Rights and Duties (Refer to your answers to Question #4 in Sections V and VI)
Which Alternative preserves the most important rights and duties, and whose rights or duties will be sacrificed to accomplish this?

4. If the interests of certain stakeholders (see your answer to Section III) are sacrificed to the interests of other stakeholders as a result of your decision, explain why that is justified or necessary.

5. What should or should not have been done in the first place to avoid this dilemma?

6. What other longer-term changes (such as political, legal, scientific, technical, societal, or organizational changes) would help prevent such problems in the future?

CONCEPT Gantt Charts and Time-
Scaled Networks

A picture is worth a thousand words.
The network diagram is essential in
calculating the schedule, but it can be
terribly difficult to decipher on a large
project. Thankfully, there are two very
good alternatives, which display both
the schedule information and the task

relationships.
Gantt charts, named after Henry Gantt,
who developed them in the early
1900s, have become the most common
method for displaying a project
schedule. Figure 10.9 is a Gantt chart
for the home landscape project. It has
the same schedule dates as the
network in Figure 10.6. Notice that all
the tasks are currently scheduled at
their early start date-you can tell that
because all noncritical tasks display
float. The great advantage of the Gantt
chart is its clarity: The horizontal axis
shows the schedule and the vertical1
axis lists the work breakdown
structure.

Another excellent graphic for
displaying a schedule is the time.scaled

networkk (as shown in Figures 10.5 and
10.10). One advantage that this
diagram has compared to the Gantt
chart is the ability to condense the
network onto less paper. On large
projects, the Gantt charts can grow too
large to print, whereas the time.scaled

network, because it combines many
tasks on one line, can be made one.half

to one.tenth the height of the Gantt.

The initial schedule represents the
combination of task sequence and task
duration, but it’s called an initial
schedule because it hasn’t taken into
account people and equipment
limitations. The next planning step
uses the initial schedule as a starting
point and balances it against the
resources available to the project.

PLANNING STEP FIVE: ASSIGN
AND LEVEL RESOURCES

The goal of resource leveling is to
optimize the use of people and
equipment assigned to the project. It
begins with the assumption that,
whenever possible, it is most
productive to have consistent,
continuous use of the fewest resources
possible. In other words, it seeks to
avoid repeatedly adding and removing
resources time and again throughout
the project. Resource leveling is the
last step in creating a realistic
schedule. It confronts the reality of
limited people and equipment and
adjusts the schedule to compensate.

Legend 1
Task 10 Duraton
ES EF

LS|LFES Early start
Milestone FL

Imposed
mpletion

date is day 15.
EF Early finish Start

LSLate start
LF=Late finish
FLHoat days

isn

Calculate late start
dates backward fromm
the deadline. 15

Task 1D Duration
12 days
2 4 days

3 4 days
1 day

12 days
6 5 days

FIGURE 10.8 Negative float. When
imposed deadlines result in negative

FIGURE 10.8 Negative float. When
imposed deadlines result in negative
float, that is a warning the project is out
of equilibrium. The cost, schedule, or
scope objective must be revised

Wek of u6 Nen of u 13 Weet d Jur 22 Week df bur 29
Labor HoursS T |IESS T|WITESS|NITIWIT|ESS N|T|WTESSMIT

Wees ur 15

IDTask Name
andscap ono and6capo B0 hrs.

3 Acquire lawn matona 64 hrs

4 Install sprinkler system 8hrs

5 donty apnnkior locations
Dig trenches Tee

“”Ppe and haroware

B Cover spnnkr y

lxed fee

angrass 368 nrs.
10 Rermove oeons 256 hrs Summay

6 hrs 11 epare so subordinate finish.
Pant lawn s0ed 16 hrs. COr

ate finish
1 Plant shrubs 96 hrs Subordinate

start. y start

Neek of Ju ee of Ju 13
LaborHours S |WITE|S S|WIT|W|T|F|S| SMT|WIT|F|5 S|M T|WT |F| S S |MT

Weet of una

D ask Namee
14 Build fence **

T6 hrs. Cquire ence matenial
16 Install fence 328 nrs

17 32 hrs.

18 a poo BU nes

9 Instal tenCing and 9ales 144 nis

Paint/stain fence and gates 72 hrs.

Legend: Critical NoncriticalL loat t= Summary

The duration of a summary task is driven by its subordinate tasks.

The float tor a noncritical task begins at its early start and ends at its late finish.

This chart shows an early start schedule-all tasks are curently scheduled to begin on their earty start date.

FIGURE 10.9 Gantt chart for home

landscape project.
Using the home landscape project as
an example, we can see how resource
leveling makes a project schedule
more realistic. The network (Figure
10.6) shows, in terms of task
scheduling, that it’s possible to put in
the lawm and build the fence at the
same time. But when we consider that
the family has only the three teenagers
available to work on the project, that
means they have just a total of 24 labor
hours available each day (3 teens x8
hours per day). Trying to put in the
lawn and build the fence concurrently
is unrealistic because it would require
each teen to work far more than eight
hours a day for more than half the
project. (The resource spreadsheet on
the Gantt chart in Figure 10.11
indicates clearly how unrealistic the

the Gantt chart in Figure 10.11
indicates clearly how unrealistic the
schedule is.) Resource leveling will
adjust the schedule to keep the teens
busy at a consistent, reasonable rate.
Figure 10.12 shows the same project
as Figure 10.11, but with the resources
leveled.) Not only does resource
leveling take unreasonable overtime
out of their project, but it also keeps
the teens employed for a longer time at
a steady rate. That’s usually an
advantage for any project team.

Let’s consider a few of the problems
faced by project managers in this
process of leveling resources.

Every project faces the reality of
limited people and equipment. The

idea is to avoid both over. and under.

allocation. As the home landscape
project demonstrates, too many
concurrent taskS can call for more
resources than are available. For
example, as discussed, the initial
schedule had the teens working on the
fence and the lawn during the same
period, and this resulted in the teens
being over.allocated during the first

half of the project (they would have
had to work more than eight hours a
day to meet this schedule).

Project managers need to remember
that whether it’s teenagers planting the
lawn, bulldozers, or programmers,
there are rarely a bunch of spares
sitting on the shelf. This over.

allocation problem can become
especially acute if project managers
i cino thot thOT nTTO 1owco nnlTT

.0JeCl ILldlldgtls Iletd tilltITLOtI

hat whether it’s teenagers planting the
awn, bulldozers, or programmers,
here are rarely a bunch of spares
itting on the shelf. This over.

allocation problenm can become
specially acute if project managers
magine that they have a large supply
of a rare resource, such as the
unlimited time of the only subject
matter expert in the company. In this
case, not only has the schedule become
unrealistic, but the manager may have
overloaded a key resource.

The other side of the problem is under.

allocation. If the project team isn’t busy
on your project, it will likely be
reassigned to other projects and be
unavailable when the next peak
comes. In the worst case, during lulls
in the project some of the unassigned
people may get laid off, becoming
permanently unavailable and taking
valuable knowledge about your project
with them.

weer of Jun 15 Week of Jun 22 Week of Jun 29 ek of Jul 6 Week of Jul 13

UESSMTWITLEISSMITIWLI|F Is|s |M|T|w|T|E s|sM|
ACquire iawn materials

entih
Design home landscap

ldentity sprinkder localions
6Dg trenches 8Cover sprnkder system

Remove debris
Prepare S

12Plat lawn soed 1
Plant shrubs

Acqulte tence mate

Install pOsts nstsnnenO gates 17
TViark TencO Ino

Instal foncing and gatos

Legend: Critical Noncritical

FIGURE 10.10 Time.scaled network for
home landscape project. This time.

scaled network has the same initial
schedule information as Figure 10.9.

Wee Jun 15 Week f Ju 2 Week of Jun 29
Week of u Meek of ul 13 ID Task Labor Hours|8ITWFS8 WITw |ESIS IT|WTE|S|S|IT|WIT|F|S|SVIT

B0 nis
Denign home lan ndbcape

Homeowner, teens
2 Put in lawn

536 hrs
3 Acquire lawn materials 64 hrs.

week of Jun 22 Week of Jun 29 Week o Jul 6 Week of Jul 13

SMT_WITIELSSMLTIWITLEIS|SMIT|WII|E Lss |M|T|w|T|E|ssM
cure lawn materials

Design home landsCap

5euy sprinder locations
Dig tronchos 8Cover sprinkler syslem

Hemove debris Pepdre
1 12 Plant lawn seed

Plant shrubs
13

ACOUire fence materia

Instal po Painvstain tenceland giates

Mark 1ence ane

Install foncing and gate

Legend: Critical Noncritical

FIGURE 10.10 Time.scaled network for

home landscape project. This time.

scaled network has the same initial
schedule information as Figure 10.9.

Wee Jun 15 Weet d Jun 22 Week of Jun 29 Wes of u6 Wee of u 13

Labor HoursSUTW FSSWTWISSMT WTES 5VTWIT|F S|VIT|1D Task Niame
eg nOmo andbcape

Homeowner, teens
Put in lawn 536 hrs

ACquiro lnwn matoriaas 64 hrs eeer, Teens
nstal sprKG 5y81em 8 hrs

5 dentty sprinkKICr locaOn 8 hrs Contractor, homeowner
Dig trenches TOxea Tee

Contractor
nstal pipe and hardware

Contraco
Cover sprinkler system fixed fee JContractor

antgrass

Teens and youth group emove debris
11 Prepare SO 96 hrs. TetS,O
12 ant lawn seed o nis LTeens
ant shrubs 6 hrs. Teens

Week d Jun Week of Ju Week of Ju 6 Week of Jul 13
T Tasi

14 A Labor HoursSITWTESSITWITIES|S|M|T|W|T|ELS|SNT |W|T|ES|5MT

15 ACquire tonce matena 16 hs
|Homeowne

28 hrs

Mark fence lino 32 hs Homeowner. teans
Install posts 80 hrs Teens
nstal encing and gatos 144 nrs. Teens
Paint/stan tence and gates 72 hrs

Woek of Jun 15 Wook of n 22 Wook of Jun 29

D Resource Name S VTWIESS V WHAS5MTW ESSMTWTESSD
Legend d u6 Week of Jul 13

Crbcal FHomeownor 44 4 4 4 32 16
Teens 36 36 36 36 12

Contractor
Youth group 40 40 40 40

Rototiller

Noncrtical L
64 40 56 56 56 56 16 24 24 24 24 24 40 24 24

Float 8 88

Summary

Hours per day

Ine resouroe Spreadsheel shOws the labor hours per day for each resource. Overallocaled resources are in italics.
The tamily has three teenagers working on the project, for a total of 24 hours each day (3 teens @8 hours).
There is only one homeowner, who is available for 8 hours a day
Given this inial schedule, with all tasks beginning on their early start dates, both the homeowner and teens are overscheduled during much of the project

FIGURE 10.11 Gantt chart with resource
spreadsheet for home landscape project.

A further problem arises if people
working on this project are also

working on several others at the same
time. If every project in the firm has
wild swings in its resource
requirements, it is almost impossible
to move people smoothly between
projects. Instead, people are yanked off
one project to help another catch up,
only to be thrown at yet another that is

FIGURE 10.11 Gantt chart with resource
spreadsheet for home landscape project.

A further problem arises if people
working on this project are also
working on several others at the same
time. If every project in the firm has
wild swings in its resource
requirements, it is almost impossible
to move people smoothly between
projects. Instead, people are yanked off
one project to help another catch up,
only to be thrown at yet another that is
even further behind.

The Process of Resource Leveling

It is important to remember how we
are defining the term resources.
Resources are the people, equipment,
and raw materials that go into the
project. Resource leveling focuses only
on the people and equipment; the
materials needed for the project are
dictated by the specifications.

Resource leveling begins with the
initial schedule and work package
resource requirements (see Table 10.1).
The leveling follows a four.step

procesS:

1. Forecast the resource requirements
throughout the project for the
initial schedule. The best tool for
this process is a resource

spreadsheet such as the one
portrayed in Figure 10.11. This
spreadsheet, correlated to the
schedule, can forecast all thhe
people and equipment needed on
each day of the project. The initial
schedule is sometimes called en.

2.05
KB/S HD . 94%

procesSS:

1. Forecast the resource requirements
throughout the project for the
initial schedule. The best tool for
this process is a resource
spreadsheet such as the one
portrayed in Figure 10.11. This
spreadsheet, correlated to the
schedule, can forecast all the
people and equipment needed on
each day of the project. The initial
schedule is sometimes called an
early start schedule. At first, this
might seem like good project
management; that is, getting as
early a start on everything as

possible. But an early start
schedule usually has a lot of
uneconomical resource peaks and
valleys. For example, the over.

allocation of the teens during the
first half of the home landscape
project is the kind of misallocation
common to early start schedules.

2. Identify the resource peaks. Use the
resource spreadsheet (Figure
10.11) and the resources histogram
(Figure 10.13) to find the periods in
the project where there are
unrealistic or uneconomical
resource amounts.

3. At each peak, delay noncritical
tasks within their float. Remember
that float is schedule flexibility.
Tasks with float can be delayed
rithant ahaninr +ho nnoiart

HD. 94%
3. At each peak, delay noncritical

tasks within their float. Remember
that float is schedule flexibility.
Tasks with float can be delayed
without changing the project
deadline. By delaying these tasks,
you’ll also be filling in the valleys
of the resource histogram; that is,
moving tasks from periods of too
much work to periods when there
is too little work. This means that
you will need fewer people and
they will be more productive, but
the deadline will stay the same. (A
comparison of the initial schedule
in Figure 10.11 with the leveled
schedule in Figure 10.12
demonstrates how Task 5 was

delayed within its float, thus
removinga resource peak for the
homeowner on June 24.)

4. Eliminate the remaining peaks by
reevaluating the work package
estimates. Using the project float in

Step 3 may not be enough to
eliminate all the peaks and valleys.
For example, instead of having two
or three people working together
on a task, consider whether just
one person could do the work over
a longer period of time. (Task 12 in
Figure 10.12 was changed from
two teenagers for one day to one
teen for three days.) Alternatively,
available people might be added to
a task to shorten its duration.
W/hen merfnrmino thece chandec

2.06 94%

4. Enunue ne Tremannny peuksvby
reevaluating the work package
estimates. Using the project float in

Step 3 may not be enough to
eliminate all the peaks and valleys.
For example, instead of having two
or three people working together
on a task, consider whether just
one person could do the work over
a longer period of time. (Task 12 in
Figure 10.12 was changed from
two teenagers for one day to one

teen for three days.) Alternatively,
available people might be added to
a task to shorten its duration.
When performing these charnges,
take note that each change to a
work package estimate is going to
change the amount of float, or
time flexibility, for that task. In
other words, after changinga
work package estimate, you will
need to return to step 4 and
recalculate the initial schedule.
Then you will also need to repeat
the first three steps of resource

leveling. (This kind of
recalculation is made much easier

by using project management
software.)

CONCEPT What to Do If the
Resource-Leveled Plan Is Still
Unrealistic

Reestimating work packages and
delaying tasks within their float can

OANGERD
Computers Will Not Do

Everything
Some of the tedious calculations

described here are easily performed by
project management software, but
don’t be fooled. Computers really
perform only two tasks: data storage
and calculations. Even if you employya
good software package, you will still
have to understand each one of the
steps in this chapter. (Appendix A
summarizes the planning steps using
the home landscape example.)

Wee of Jun 15 e d Jun 22 We of un 29 Wek of Jul6 Weebk of Jul 13 Week of u20 Week of u7

1DTaskName
gn nome landscape

2

Labor Houre3NTWIOSBMIWEIFBSMTMIFSSMT|WTFSSMEINTESSMTWIEBBM1WIES
80 s Homeowner, toens

Putin lawnn 548 rs.

3 Acquire iawn materials 64
Homeowner, leens

Install sprinkler system B hws.

Oentty sprinkler locations 8 hrs. Contractór, homeowner
Dig trenche

P anc naowaro

Contracior
Cover spinkler system foe Contractor

380 s Plant ass

260 s eens and youth groupHemove debris
PropareSO 96 Teens, rototiller

24 hs Toons Mant lawn sood
ant snubs Teens

Task Name
14 Build fence

Wee dfun eek od in 7 Weck d un 29 Wee u 6 We d M13 Weex d Ju 20 Week of u 27
Labo tHours SIMTINIEISSTNT|ESSu TIWIT|EIS|S MITIWITEISISM T WNOSSMEWEFISSMTWEES

Acquire fence materia 16 s Homeowner
Installtence 328 hvs

17 Mark lence line Homeowner, teens

80 hvs pos
es

nstai lencng and gates 144 s Teens
PinUothin ionco and gato5 72 hs Ieens

Legend Week un ekd an 2 Week o un 2 Week of u6 Woek of Jul 1 Wek d Ju 20
Resue NemeHTINEISSTINITESSMTMTESSMMEFSSMTMTFSSMTWTEISS WTNTES

v27

Critical omeowner 4444 8 a EBSMTWT|E IS

Teens ** 24 24 24 24 44 424 2a 18 16 24 4 2 224 a « «

3 Contractor
4 Youth group 443 404 40

5 Rolotll

Noncribcal L

SuTmimary

8

Hours per da

he leveled schedule has eliminated the task overlaps. which caused unrealistic work hours for the teens and homeowner.

3Skelayed 5 days to level homeowner whille keeping he sprinkler contractor on schedulk
a5K T0eduCed leens to 4 hours per day feach) so they can participate in design home landscape at the same time (Design home lanv
hours per day.) Added on addifional day for the youth group to wOrk on the task. This changed the task duration frorm 4 to 5 days and the total labor trom 256 hours to 260 hours.
ask 12-Changed the lask from wo teens for one day (16 hours, labor) to one leen for 3 days (24 hours, labor) One teen working on the task alone won t be as efficient, but now

the other two teens can wOrk on Task 18 at he sarme time.

calls tor each teen to work 4

as 13. 5. and 17Delayed theseasks to level the project and their successor tasks were delayed as wel
The new schedule is 10 OIKdays longer, but neither he teens nor the nomeawner are overallocaled on any day.

FIGURE 10.12
resource.leveled schedule for home

landscape project.

Gantt chart with

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