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Week 4 Assignment: Journal
Start Assignment
· Due Sep 27 by 12:59am
 
· Points 35
 
· Submitting a file upload

Required Resources
Read/review the following resources for this activity:
· Textbook: Chapter 8, 9, 17 (Introduction); review Chapter 7
· Lesson

Introduction
Remember – your actual journal entry should be somewhat brief; most of your time should be spent thinking about the questions asked and the issues raised. Your thoughts should then be distilled into a mini-argument that will respond affirmatively to the four tests for evaluating arguments: truthfulness of premises, logical strength, relevance, and non-circularity.

Instructions
For this journal assignment, briefly answer each of the following prompts:
· Inference: The differing meanings of “valid inference” and “warranted inference” are closely related to the differing purposes of deductive and inductive arguments – the purpose of deductive being to prove; the purpose of inductive to make the conclusion most probable.
· Look up the words “valid” and “warranted.” Each of these words, you will find, has what is known as a lexical definition – that is just the dictionary definition of the word. Words also have a certain connotations – meanings that go beyond their lexical definitions; associated ideas and concepts – think of terms such a “fur baby” as the name for a pet.
· Briefly discuss how the lexical definitions and connotations of “valid” and “warranted” can help us understand the differing purposes of deductive and inductive arguments.
· Fallacies: In Section 8.2, the text states that there are “fallacious argument templates” (Facione & Gittens, p. 167) and then gives a number of examples. The authors further state: “Analysis of the meanings of the terms used and the grammatical rules of the language reveal the source of error” (p.167).
· Choose one of the fallacies in this section, such as Denying the Antecedent or False Classification and pair it with the valid argument template. For example, if you choose Denying the Antecedent, the valid argument template will be Denying the Consequent. False Classification would pair with one of the fallacies in Reasoning About Classes of Objects.
· Explain, in your own words, how the fallacy is revealed through analysis of the valid argument template. Think of it this way – if you know how the heart works, you will know that certain malfunctions will prevent it from working.  For example, if you know that the coronary arteries supply the heart with blood, then you can reason that a blockage will stop that vital flow. So this journal prompt asks you to explain, in your own words, how one of the valid argument templates work – and how that exposes the fallacy connected with that type of argument.
· Civic Responsibility: At the end of Chapter 9 there is a Bonus Exercise that asks you to research and analyze the 2009 debate over the healthcare public option. If you were actually to complete that exercise, it would take quite a bit of time and effort.
· Do you think that completing such an exercise would be time well spent or time wasted? If well-spent, why? If time wasted, why?
· Is there any issue on which you think a comparable amount of time and effort would be worthwhile?
· As a critical thinker, do you believe that citizens have an obligation to be informed on topics of current interest? If yes, why, if no, why not?
If you include references to outside sources (beyond the textbook), make sure you cite them properly.

Writing Requirements (APA format)

· Length: 1 ½ -2 pages (not including prompts, title page or references page)
· 1-inch margins
· Double spaced
· 12-point Times New Roman font
· Title page
· References page (as needed)

Grading
This activity will be graded using the Journal Grading Rubric.

Course Outcomes (CO): 3, 4, 5, 6

Due Date: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Sunday

References

Facione, P. A., & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Think critically (3rd ed.). Pearson.
Rubric

Journal Grading Rubric – 35 pts

Journal Grading Rubric – 35 pts

Criteria

Ratings

Pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeLength

5 pts

Meets length requirement

0 pts

Does not meet length requirement

5 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeContent Reflection

15 pts

Reflection demonstrates a high degree of critical thinking in applying, analyzing, and evaluating key course concepts and theories from readings, lectures, media, discussions activities, and/or assignments. Insightful and relevant connections made through contextual explanations, inferences, and examples.

12.75 pts

Reflection demonstrates some degree of critical thinking in applying, analyzing, and/or evaluating key course concepts and theories from readings, lectures, media, discussions activities, and/or assignments. Connections made through explanations, inferences, and/or examples.

11.25 pts

Reflection demonstrates limited critical thinking in applying, analyzing, and/or evaluating key course concepts and theories from readings, lectures, media, discussions, activities, and/or assignments. Minimal connections made through explanations, inferences, and/or examples.

9 pts

Reflection lacks critical thinking. Superficial connections are made with key course concepts and course materials, activities, and/or assignments.

0 pts

Little or no reflection; copies or repeats text or lecture.

15 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomePersonal Growth

10 pts

Conveys strong evidence of reflection on own work with a personal response to the self-assessment questions posed. Demonstrates significant personal growth and awareness of deeper meaning through inferences made, examples, well developed insights, and substantial depth in perceptions and challenges. Synthesizes current experience into future implications.

8.5 pts

Conveys evidence of reflection on own work with a personal response to the self-assessment questions posed. Demonstrates satisfactory personal growth and awareness through some inferences made, examples, insights, and challenges. Some thought of the future implications of current experience.

7.5 pts

Conveys limited evidence of reflection on own work in response to the self-assessment questions posed. Demonstrates less than adequate personal growth and awareness through few or simplistic inferences made, examples, insights, and/or challenges that are not well developed. Minimal thought of the future implications of current experience.

6 pts

Conveys inadequate evidence of reflection on own work in response to the self-assessment questions posed. Personal growth and awareness are not evident and/or demonstrates a neutral experience with negligible personal impact. Lacks enough inferences, examples, personal insights and challenges, and/or future implications are overlooked.

0 pts

No evidence of reflection.

10 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWriting Quality

5 pts

Well written and clearly organized using standard English, characterized by elements of a strong writing style and basically free from grammar, punctuation, usage, and spelling errors.

4.25 pts

Above average writing style and logically organized using standard English with minor errors in grammar, punctuation, usage, and spelling.

3.75 pts

Average and/or casual writing style that is sometimes unclear and/or with some errors in grammar, punctuation, usage, and spelling.

3 pts

Poor writing style lacking in standard English, clarity, language used, and/or frequent errors in grammar, punctuation, usage, and spelling. Needs work.

0 pts

Lacks coherence; errors in grammar, usage and spelling interfere with readability and understanding to significant degree.

5 pts

Total Points: 35

Week 5 Assignment: Journal
Start Assignment
· Due Oct 4 by 12:59am
 
· Points 35
 
· Submitting a file upload

Required Resources
Read/review the following resources for this activity:
· Textbook: Chapter 10, 11
· Lesson

Introduction
Remember – these journal questions require more thinking than writing. Think about exactly what you are asked to do, and then write as economically as possible.  

Instructions
For this journal assignment, briefly answer each of the following prompts. For all instances where you are required to provide a definition, do not copy definitions from the text. Use your own words.
· Self-Regulation

· The textbook mentions the skill of self-regulation. How do you define this term? You may want to review Chapter 2 (to review critical thinking skills) before your write out your definition.
· Sytem-1 and System-2

· Define System-1 and System-2 thinking in your own words.
· Give an example from your personal or work life where you would use each of them, explaining why each is appropriate to the situation in which you use it.
· Heuristics

· Define “heuristic” in your own words.
· Give an example of a heuristic might be used in your personal or professional life and briefly show how it could have a positive or negative effect.
· Do not use examples found in the text.
· Dominance Structuring

· Explain the term “dominance structuring” in your own words.
· Is dominance structuring a positive or negative attribute of critical thinking? Explain.
· Use examples if that is helpful to your explanation.
· Cognitive Bias

· Briefly examine what part you think mastery of facts and understanding of data have in avoiding cognitive bias in System-1 thinking.
If you include references to outside sources (beyond the textbook), make sure you cite them properly.

Writing Requirements (APA format)

· Length: 1 ½ -2 pages (not including prompts, title page or references page)
· 1-inch margins
· Double spaced
· 12-point Times New Roman font
· Title page
· References page (as needed)

Grading
This activity will be graded using the Journal Grading Rubric.

Course Outcomes (CO): 1, 4, 5

Due Date: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Sunday

Rubric

Journal Grading Rubric – 35 pts

Journal Grading Rubric – 35 pts

Criteria

Ratings

Pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeLength

5 pts

Meets length requirement

0 pts

Does not meet length requirement

5 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeContent Reflection

15 pts

Reflection demonstrates a high degree of critical thinking in applying, analyzing, and evaluating key course concepts and theories from readings, lectures, media, discussions activities, and/or assignments. Insightful and relevant connections made through contextual explanations, inferences, and examples.

12.75 pts

Reflection demonstrates some degree of critical thinking in applying, analyzing, and/or evaluating key course concepts and theories from readings, lectures, media, discussions activities, and/or assignments. Connections made through explanations, inferences, and/or examples.

11.25 pts

Reflection demonstrates limited critical thinking in applying, analyzing, and/or evaluating key course concepts and theories from readings, lectures, media, discussions, activities, and/or assignments. Minimal connections made through explanations, inferences, and/or examples.

9 pts

Reflection lacks critical thinking. Superficial connections are made with key course concepts and course materials, activities, and/or assignments.

0 pts

Little or no reflection; copies or repeats text or lecture.

15 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomePersonal Growth

10 pts

Conveys strong evidence of reflection on own work with a personal response to the self-assessment questions posed. Demonstrates significant personal growth and awareness of deeper meaning through inferences made, examples, well developed insights, and substantial depth in perceptions and challenges. Synthesizes current experience into future implications.

8.5 pts

Conveys evidence of reflection on own work with a personal response to the self-assessment questions posed. Demonstrates satisfactory personal growth and awareness through some inferences made, examples, insights, and challenges. Some thought of the future implications of current experience.

7.5 pts

Conveys limited evidence of reflection on own work in response to the self-assessment questions posed. Demonstrates less than adequate personal growth and awareness through few or simplistic inferences made, examples, insights, and/or challenges that are not well developed. Minimal thought of the future implications of current experience.

6 pts

Conveys inadequate evidence of reflection on own work in response to the self-assessment questions posed. Personal growth and awareness are not evident and/or demonstrates a neutral experience with negligible personal impact. Lacks enough inferences, examples, personal insights and challenges, and/or future implications are overlooked.

0 pts

No evidence of reflection.

10 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWriting Quality

5 pts

Well written and clearly organized using standard English, characterized by elements of a strong writing style and basically free from grammar, punctuation, usage, and spelling errors.

4.25 pts

Above average writing style and logically organized using standard English with minor errors in grammar, punctuation, usage, and spelling.

3.75 pts

Average and/or casual writing style that is sometimes unclear and/or with some errors in grammar, punctuation, usage, and spelling.

3 pts

Poor writing style lacking in standard English, clarity, language used, and/or frequent errors in grammar, punctuation, usage, and spelling. Needs work.

0 pts

Lacks coherence; errors in grammar, usage and spelling interfere with readability and understanding to significant degree.

5 pts

Total Points: 35

Week 2 Assignment: Journal
Start Assignment
· Due Monday by 12:59am
 
· Points 35
 
· Submitting a file upload

Required Resources
Read/review the following resources for this activity:
· Textbook: Chapter 4, 5
· Lesson

Instructions
Remember – these journal questions require more thinking than writing. Think about exactly what you are asked to do, and then write as economically as possible. 
For this journal assignment, answer each of the following prompts:
· Important Idea

· Considering only the Introduction to Chapter 5, in terms of developing critical thinking and reasoning, what do you consider is the most valuable and important idea in that section? You can either summarize or directly quote the text; then, briefly explain why you find this idea important and valuable.
· Critical Thinking

· In Chapter 5, the section “Making Arguments” states: “In some ways applying our core critical thinking skills to analysis can be more difficult than offering an evaluative opinion. Analysis, like interpretation, is understanding at a deep level (p. 89)”
· What concepts discussed in Chapter 4 might make analysis of a statement difficult – and why?
· Beliefs

· Why do you believe what you believe?
· What is your “evidence”?
· Test one of your beliefs by asking yourself, “Why?” As you answer each “why,” go down another layer – four layers will probably give you a good idea of why you believe what you believe.
· Your product should show a well-reasoned and logical basis for your belief. Stay away from the big stuff, like believing in God, or who to vote for in the next election, and don’t look for sources – this is about what you believe and why you believe it. After all, this is only an 8-week course, and we can’t settle everything!
· Click on the following link for an example of layers of why:

Link: Example of Layers of Why

 

Note

Don’t be tempted to skip steps. If you start with layer 5, you have just opened up a whole new line of “whys.” For example, why should everyone be afforded an opportunity to reach his or her highest potential? After all, for most of the history of the world, that has not been the case.
If you include references to outside sources (beyond the textbook), make sure you cite them properly.

Writing Requirements (APA format)

· Length: 1 ½ -2 pages (not including prompts, title page or references page)
· 1-inch margins
· Double spaced
· 12-point Times New Roman font
· Title page
· References page (as needed)

Grading
This activity will be graded using the Journal Grading Rubric.

Course Outcomes (CO): 1, 4, 6

Due Date: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Sunday

Rubric

Journal Grading Rubric – 35 pts

Journal Grading Rubric – 35 pts

Criteria

Ratings

Pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeLength

5 pts

Meets length requirement

0 pts

Does not meet length requirement

5 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeContent Reflection

15 pts

Reflection demonstrates a high degree of critical thinking in applying, analyzing, and evaluating key course concepts and theories from readings, lectures, media, discussions activities, and/or assignments. Insightful and relevant connections made through contextual explanations, inferences, and examples.

12.75 pts

Reflection demonstrates some degree of critical thinking in applying, analyzing, and/or evaluating key course concepts and theories from readings, lectures, media, discussions activities, and/or assignments. Connections made through explanations, inferences, and/or examples.

11.25 pts

Reflection demonstrates limited critical thinking in applying, analyzing, and/or evaluating key course concepts and theories from readings, lectures, media, discussions, activities, and/or assignments. Minimal connections made through explanations, inferences, and/or examples.

9 pts

Reflection lacks critical thinking. Superficial connections are made with key course concepts and course materials, activities, and/or assignments.

0 pts

Little or no reflection; copies or repeats text or lecture.

15 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomePersonal Growth

10 pts

Conveys strong evidence of reflection on own work with a personal response to the self-assessment questions posed. Demonstrates significant personal growth and awareness of deeper meaning through inferences made, examples, well developed insights, and substantial depth in perceptions and challenges. Synthesizes current experience into future implications.

8.5 pts

Conveys evidence of reflection on own work with a personal response to the self-assessment questions posed. Demonstrates satisfactory personal growth and awareness through some inferences made, examples, insights, and challenges. Some thought of the future implications of current experience.

7.5 pts

Conveys limited evidence of reflection on own work in response to the self-assessment questions posed. Demonstrates less than adequate personal growth and awareness through few or simplistic inferences made, examples, insights, and/or challenges that are not well developed. Minimal thought of the future implications of current experience.

6 pts

Conveys inadequate evidence of reflection on own work in response to the self-assessment questions posed. Personal growth and awareness are not evident and/or demonstrates a neutral experience with negligible personal impact. Lacks enough inferences, examples, personal insights and challenges, and/or future implications are overlooked.

0 pts

No evidence of reflection.

10 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWriting Quality

5 pts

Well written and clearly organized using standard English, characterized by elements of a strong writing style and basically free from grammar, punctuation, usage, and spelling errors.

4.25 pts

Above average writing style and logically organized using standard English with minor errors in grammar, punctuation, usage, and spelling.

3.75 pts

Average and/or casual writing style that is sometimes unclear and/or with some errors in grammar, punctuation, usage, and spelling.

3 pts

Poor writing style lacking in standard English, clarity, language used, and/or frequent errors in grammar, punctuation, usage, and spelling. Needs work.

0 pts

Lacks coherence; errors in grammar, usage and spelling interfere with readability and understanding to significant degree.

5 pts

Total Points: 35

Week 8 Assignment: Journal
Start Assignment
· Due Oct 24 by 12:59am
 
· Points 35
 
· Submitting a file upload

Required Resources
Read/review the following resources for this activity:
· Textbook: Chapter 16
· Lesson

Introduction
Remember – these journal questions require more thinking than writing. Think about exactly what you are asked to do, and then write as economically as possible. 

Instructions

· Critical Thinking

· Go back to your very first journal entry – review your definition of critical thinking. After studying critical thinking for the past eight weeks, would you change your definition in any way? If yes, how and why? If no – if it was perfect – what parts of the text were best reflected in your definition?
· Heart of the Matter

· Recall in your first journal entry that you discussed the authors’ statement that the concepts in Chapters 12, 13 and 14 were “the heart of the matter.” After having studied those chapters, answer again, with renewed understanding, the question posed there: Why do you think the authors find these concepts important to critical thinking?
· Ethical Decision-Making

· The lecture claims that an argument is no good unless it has a “strong and reasoned ethical base.” Do you agree that ethics is an essential element of a good argument? If yes, why? If no, why not?
· Looking Forward

· Do you believe that you now know everything you need to know about critical thinking – or is learning to think critically a life-long task? Explain your answer.

Writing Requirements (APA format)

· Length: 1 ½ -2 pages (not including prompts, title page or references page)
· 1-inch margins
· Double spaced
· 12-point Times New Roman font
· Title page
· References page

Grading
This activity will be graded using the Journal Grading Rubric.

Course Outcomes (CO): 1, 3, 4, 6

Due Date: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Saturday

Rubric

Journal Grading Rubric – 35 pts

Journal Grading Rubric – 35 pts

Criteria

Ratings

Pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeLength

5 pts

Meets length requirement

0 pts

Does not meet length requirement

5 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeContent Reflection

15 pts

Reflection demonstrates a high degree of critical thinking in applying, analyzing, and evaluating key course concepts and theories from readings, lectures, media, discussions activities, and/or assignments. Insightful and relevant connections made through contextual explanations, inferences, and examples.

12.75 pts

Reflection demonstrates some degree of critical thinking in applying, analyzing, and/or evaluating key course concepts and theories from readings, lectures, media, discussions activities, and/or assignments. Connections made through explanations, inferences, and/or examples.

11.25 pts

Reflection demonstrates limited critical thinking in applying, analyzing, and/or evaluating key course concepts and theories from readings, lectures, media, discussions, activities, and/or assignments. Minimal connections made through explanations, inferences, and/or examples.

9 pts

Reflection lacks critical thinking. Superficial connections are made with key course concepts and course materials, activities, and/or assignments.

0 pts

Little or no reflection; copies or repeats text or lecture.

15 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomePersonal Growth

10 pts

Conveys strong evidence of reflection on own work with a personal response to the self-assessment questions posed. Demonstrates significant personal growth and awareness of deeper meaning through inferences made, examples, well developed insights, and substantial depth in perceptions and challenges. Synthesizes current experience into future implications.

8.5 pts

Conveys evidence of reflection on own work with a personal response to the self-assessment questions posed. Demonstrates satisfactory personal growth and awareness through some inferences made, examples, insights, and challenges. Some thought of the future implications of current experience.

7.5 pts

Conveys limited evidence of reflection on own work in response to the self-assessment questions posed. Demonstrates less than adequate personal growth and awareness through few or simplistic inferences made, examples, insights, and/or challenges that are not well developed. Minimal thought of the future implications of current experience.

6 pts

Conveys inadequate evidence of reflection on own work in response to the self-assessment questions posed. Personal growth and awareness are not evident and/or demonstrates a neutral experience with negligible personal impact. Lacks enough inferences, examples, personal insights and challenges, and/or future implications are overlooked.

0 pts

No evidence of reflection.

10 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWriting Quality

5 pts

Well written and clearly organized using standard English, characterized by elements of a strong writing style and basically free from grammar, punctuation, usage, and spelling errors.

4.25 pts

Above average writing style and logically organized using standard English with minor errors in grammar, punctuation, usage, and spelling.

3.75 pts

Average and/or casual writing style that is sometimes unclear and/or with some errors in grammar, punctuation, usage, and spelling.

3 pts

Poor writing style lacking in standard English, clarity, language used, and/or frequent errors in grammar, punctuation, usage, and spelling. Needs work.

0 pts

Lacks coherence; errors in grammar, usage and spelling interfere with readability and understanding to significant degree.

5 pts

Total Points: 35

Think Critically

A01_FACI9661_03_SE_FM.indd 1 12/30/14 1:04 PM

To students and teachers everywhere,
may developing critical thinking help you

stay forever young.

A01_FACI9661_03_SE_FM.indd 2 12/30/14 1:04 PM

Think Critically
Third Edition

Peter Facione

Carol Ann Gittens

Boston Columbus Hoboken Indianapolis New York San Francisco
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A01_FACI9661_03_SE_FM.indd 3 12/30/14 1:04 PM

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Facione, Peter A.
Think critically / Peter Facione, Carol Ann Gittens. — Third edition.
pages cm
Includes index.
ISBN 978-0-13-390966-1 — ISBN 0-13-390966-2
1. Critical thinking—Textbooks. I. Gittens, Carol Ann. II. Title.
B809.2.F33 2014
160—dc23
2014040474

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Student Edition:
ISBN 10: 0-13-390966-2
ISBN 13: 978-0-13-390966-1

Instructor’s Review Copy:
ISBN 10: 0-13-391412-7
ISBN 13: 978-0-13-391412-2

A la Carte:
ISBN 10: 0-13-391413-5
ISBN 13: 978-0-13-391413-9

A01_FACI9661_03_SE_FM.indd 4 12/30/14 1:04 PM

www.pearsoned.com/permissions/

1 The Power of Critical Thinking 1

2 Critical Thinking Mindset 
and Skills 18

3 Solve Problems and Succeed
in College 39

4 Clarify Ideas and Concepts 63

5 Analyze Arguments and Diagram
Decisions 88

6 Evaluate the Credibility of Claims
and Sources 113

7 Evaluate Arguments: Four Basic
Tests 138

8 Valid Inferences 158

9 Warranted Inferences 174

10 Snap Judgments: Risks and
Benefits of Heuristic Thinking 193

11 Reflective Decision Making 220

12 Comparative Reasoning 239

13 Ideological Reasoning 259

14 Empirical Reasoning 283

15 Write Sound and Effective 
Arguments 300

16 Ethical Decision Making 327

17 The Logic of Declarative
Statements 349

Appendix: Extend Argument-
Decision Mapping Strategies 377

Brief Contents

v

A01_FACI9661_03_SE_FM.indd 5 12/30/14 1:04 PM

vi

Acknowledgments x
Preface xi
About the Authors xiii

1 The Power of Critical Thinking 1
Risk and Uncertainty Abound 2

Critical Thinking and a Free Society 2
The One and the Many 5

What Do We Mean by “Critical Thinking”? 6
Expert Consensus Conceptualization 6
“Critical Thinking” Does Not Mean
“Negative Thinking” 7
Improvement Takes Practice 8

Evaluating Critical Thinking 9
The Students’ Assignment—Kennedy Act 9

The Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric 11
The Students’ Assignment—Haiti 11

Summing up this chapter • Key Concept • Applications

2 Critical Thinking Mindset 
and Skills 18

Positive Critical Thinking Habits of Mind 19
The Spirit of a Strong Critical Thinker 20
Positive vs. Negative Habits of Mind 21
Preliminary Self-Assessment 21
Research on the Positive Critical Thinking Mindset 22

Seven Positive Critical Thinking Habits
of Mind 22 • Negative Habits of Mind 23

Is a Good Critical Thinker Automatically
a Good Person? 25
Cultivate a Positive Critical Thinking Mindset 26

Core Critical Thinking Skills 27
Interpreting and Analyzing the Consensus
Statement 27
The Jury Is Deliberating 28
Critical Thinking Skills Fire in Many 
Combinations 28
Strengthening Our Core Critical Thinking Skills 29
The Art of the Good Question 30
Skills and Subskills Defined 32

Looking Ahead 32
Summing up this chapter • Key Concepts • Applications

3 Solve Problems and Succeed
in College 39

Differences and Similarities 41

IDEAS: A 5-Step Critical Thinking General
Problem-Solving Process 42

Educating the Whole Person 44
Social Relationships 45

STEP 1: IDENTIFY the Problem and Set Priorities 46

Vocation 46
STEp 1: IDENTIFY the Problem and Set Priorities 47 • STEP 2:
DETErMINE relevant Information and Deepen Understanding 48

Academics 49
The First Two IDEAS Steps in Maria’s Case 50

Health and Physical Well-being 52
The First Three Steps in Leah’s Case 52

Problems in College and Beyond 55
Emotional Well-Being 55
Spiritual Development 59
Summing up this chapter • Key Concept • Applications

4 Clarify Ideas and Concepts 63
Interpretation, Context, and Purpose 64

Meaning Matters 64
But, Clear Enough for What? 65
Worth 1000 Words 67
Communication, Language, and Thought 68

When Vagueness or Ambiguity
Cause Misunderstandings 70

Vagueness: “Does the Meaning Include This Case or Not?” 70
Problematic Vagueness 71
Ambiguity: “Which Meaning Are We Using?” 72
Problematic Ambiguity 72

Resolving Problematic Vagueness and Ambiguity 72
Contextualizing 72
Clarifying Original Intent 73
Negotiating the Meaning 75
Using Qualifications, Exceptions, or Exclusions 78
Stipulating the Meaning 78
Donkey Cart Words Signal Twisted Meanings 79

Language Communities 81
National and Global Language Communities 81
Language Communities Formed
of People with Like Interests 82
Academic Disciplines as Language Communities 83
Critical Thinking and College Introductory Courses 84
Summing up this chapter • Key Concepts • Applications

5 Analyze Arguments
and Diagram Decisions 88

Analyzing Reasons and Claims 89
Accuracy Depends on Context and Purpose 89
Over-Simplification Masks Reality 90
“Reason” and “Premise” 91

Contents

A01_FACI9661_03_SE_FM.indd 6 12/30/14 1:04 PM

Contents vii

Mapping Claims and the Reasons for Them 93
Interpreting Unspoken Reasons and Claims
in Context 95
Interpreting the Use of Irony, Humor, Sarcasm,
and More 96

Analyzing Arguments in Context 96
The El Train Argument 96
The “Guns for Kids” Conversation 98

Analyzing and Mapping Decisions 103
“We Should Cancel the Spring Trip” #1 104
“We Should Cancel the Spring Trip” #2 105
Summing up this chapter • Key Concepts • Applications

6 Evaluate the Credibility
of Claims and Sources 113

Assessing the Source: Whom Should I Trust? 114
Claims without Reasons 114
Cognitive Development and Healthy
Skepticism 116
Authority and Expertise 116

Learned and Experienced 117 • On-Topic, Up-To-Date,
and Capable of Explaining 118 • Unbiased and
Truthful 120 • Free of Conflicts of Interest, and Acting in the
Client’s Interest 120 • Unconstrained, Informed about the Case
at Hand, and Mentally Stable 123 • Twelve Characteristics of a
Trustworthy Source 123

Assessing the Substance—What Should I Believe? 125
Personal Muck and Gunk Monitor 125
Self-Contradictions and Tautologies 126
Marketing, Spin, Disinformation, and
Propaganda 128
Slanted Language and Loaded Expressions 129

Independent Verification 130
Can the Claim Be Confirmed? 130
Can the Claim Be Disconfirmed? 131
More than a Healthy Sense of Skepticism Only 132
Independent Investigation and the Q-Ray
Bracelet Case 133
Suspending Judgment 134
Summing up this chapter • Key Concepts • Applications

7 Evaluate Arguments: Four Basic
Tests 138

Giving Reasons and Making Arguments 139
Truthfulness 140
Logical Strength 140
Relevance 141
Non-Circularity 142

The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments 142
Test #1: Truthfulness of the Premises 143
Test #2: Logical Strength 143
Test #3: Relevance 144
Test #4: Non-Circularity 146
Argument Making Contexts 147

Common Reasoning Errors 148
Fallacies of Relevance 148

Appeals to Ignorance 149 • Appeals to the
Mob 149 • Appeals to Emotion 149 • Ad Hominem
Attacks 150 • Straw Man Fallacy 151 • Playing with
Words Fallacy 152 • Misuse of Authority Fallacy 153

Summing up this chapter • Key Concepts • Applications

8 Valid Inferences 158
The Structure of the Reasoning 160

Inferences Offered as Certain 160
Reasoning with Declarative Statements 161

Denying the Consequent 161 • Affirming the
Antecedent 162 • Disjunctive Syllogism 163

Reasoning about Classes of Objects 163
Applying a Generalization 164 • Applying an
Exception 165 • The Power of Only 165

Reasoning about Relationships 165
Transitivity, reflexivity, and Identity 166

Fallacies Masquerading as Valid Arguments 167
Fallacies When Reasoning with Declarative
Statements 167

Affirming the Consequent 167 • Denying the
Antecedent 167

Fallacies When Reasoning about Classes
of Objects 167

False Classification 167 • Fallacies of Composition
and Division 169

Fallacies of False Reference 170
Personal Infallibility? We Don’t Think So 170
Summing up this chapter • Key Concept • Applications

9 Warranted Inferences 174
The Evidence Currently at Hand 175

The “Weight of Evidence” 176
Evaluating Generalizations 178

Was the Correct Group Sampled? 179 • Were the Data
Obtained in an Effective Way? 179 • Were Enough Cases
Considered? 179 • Was the Sample representatively
Structured? 179

Coincidences, Patterns, Correlations, and Causes 180
Coincidences 180 • patterns 180 • Correlations 182
• Causes 184

Fallacies Masquerading as Warranted Arguments 185
Erroneous Generalization 185 • Playing with
Numbers 185 • False Dilemma 186 • The Gambler’s
Fallacy 186 • False Cause 186 • Slippery Slope 188

Summing up this chapter • Key Concept • Applications

10 Snap Judgments: Risks and
Benefits of Heuristic Thinking 193

Our Two Human Decision-Making Systems 194
The “Two-Systems” Approach to Human
Decision Making 194

reactive (System-1) Thinking 194 • reflective (System-2)
Thinking 195

The Value of Each System 196

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viii Contents

Heuristics: Their Benefits and Risks 197
Individual Cognitive Heuristics 198

1. Satisficing and 2. Temporizing 198 • 3. Affect: “Go with
Your Gut” 199 • 4. Simulation 200 •
5. Availability 202 • 6. representation 203 •
7. Association 203 • 8. Stereotyping 204 • 9. “Us vs.
Them” 206 • 10. Power Differential 208 • 11. Anchoring with
Adjustment 210 • 12. Illusion of Control 210 • 13. Optimistic
Bias and 14. Hindsight Bias 210 • 15. Elimination by Aspect:
“One Strike and You’re Out” 212 • 16. Loss and risk
Aversion 213 • 17. “All or Nothing” 213

Heuristics in Action 215
Summing up this chapter • Key Concepts • Applications

11 Reflective Decision Making 220
Dominance Structuring: A Fortress of Conviction 222

“I Would Definitely Go to the Doctor” 222
Explaining and Defending Ourselves 224

A Poorly Crafted Assignment 224

Moving from Decision to Action 225
phase 1: pre-Editing 226 • phase 2: Identifying One promising
Option 227 • Phase 3: Testing the Promising Option 227
• Phase 4: Fortifying the To-Be-Chosen Option 228

Benefits and Risks of Dominance Structuring 228

Self-Regulation Critical Thinking Skill Strategies 230
Precautions When Pre-Editing 231

Be Sure about “The Problem” 231 • Specify the
Decision-Critical Attributes 231 • Be Clear about Why
an Option Is In or Out 231

Precautions When Identifying
the Promising Option 232

Scrutinize Options with Disciplined Impartiality 232 • Listen
to Both Sides First 232

Precautions When Testing the Promising Option 232
Use All the Essential Criteria 232 • Treat Equals as
Equals 233 • Diligently Engage in Truth-Seeking and remain
Impartial 233

Precautions When Fortifying the
To-Be-Chosen Option 233

Be Honest with Yourself 233

Critical Thinking Strategies for Better
Decision Making 234

Task Independent Teams with the Same Problem 234 • Decide
When It’s Time to Decide 235 • Analyze Indicators and Make
Midcourse Corrections 235 • Create a Culture of respect for
Critical Thinking 235

Summing up this chapter • Key Concepts • Applications

12 Comparative Reasoning 239
Recognizing Comparative Reasoning 240

Our Minds Crave Patterns 240
Comparative, Ideological, and Empirical Inferences 242
How This Chapter Connects to Others 242
Gardens of Comparatives 243
Powerful Comparisons Connect Intellect
and Emotion 245

Evaluating Comparative Inferences 246
Do the Four Tests of Acceptability Apply? 247

Five Criteria for Evaluating Comparative
Reasoning 248

Familiarity 248 • Simplicity 249 • Comprehensiveness 249 •
productivity 250 • Testability 250

Models and Metaphors Shape Expectations 251
Creative Suggestions vs. Solid Proofs 251
The Center of the Universe for Two
Thousand Years 252
The Many Uses of Comparative Inferences 253
Summing up this chapter • Key Concepts • Applications

13 Ideological Reasoning 259
Recognizing Ideological Reasoning 262

Examples of Ideological Reasoning 264
Three Features of Ideological Reasoning 266

Ideological reasoning Is Deductive in Character 266 •
Ideological Premises Are Axiomatic 267 • The Argument
Maker Takes the Ideological Absolutes on Faith 267

Evaluating Ideological Reasoning 269
Are the Ideological Premises True? 269
Logical Strength and Ideological Belief Systems 272
Relevancy, Non-Circularity, and Ideological
Reasoning 274

Uses, Benefits, and Risks of Ideological Reasoning 275
Summing up this chapter • Key Concept • Applications

14 Empirical Reasoning 283
Recognizing Empirical Reasoning 285

Characteristics of Empirical Reasoning 285
Empirical reasoning Is Inductive 285 • Empirical reasoning
Is Self-Corrective 286 • Empirical reasoning Is Open to
Independent Verification 286

Hypotheses, Conditions, and Measurable
Manifestations 287

Conducting an Investigation Scientifically 289
Perhaps the First Recorded Empirical Investigation 289
Steps in the Process: An Extended Example 290
Evaluating Empirical Reasoning 293

Benefits and Risks Associated with Empirical
Reasoning 295

Summing up this chapter • Key Concepts • Applications

15 Write Sound and Effective 
Arguments 300

What Critical Thinking Questions Do Effective
Writers Ask? 301

The Rhetorical Situation 302
Think Author 302

Find Your Voice 303 • Think about Who You read 304

Think Audience 304
What Does the Audience Care About? 305 • Writing
for You 306 • Who Is Your Audience? 306 • Same Author
and Audience, Different Purpose 308

Think Purpose and Circumstances 310
Think Tactics 310 • Clues from Contextual Cues 311

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Contents ix

Organize and Develop Your Presentation 312
Reach Out and Grab Someone 312
Crafting a Presentation 312
Good News: Writing Is Work 313

An Arguable Thesis Statement and Solid
Research 313  •  Map Out the Arguments Pro
and Con—Then Outline Your Case 314

“BART’S Decision—Draft” 315
Evaluating the Credibility of Sources 316
Prewriting, Writing, and Rewriting 318
Two Practical Tips 318

Evaluating Effectiveness 319
Features of Sound and Effective Written
Argumentation 319
A Tool for Evaluating Critical Thinking and
Writing 321
How to Apply the Rubric for
Evaluating Written Argumentation 321
Summing up this chapter  •  Key Concepts  •  Applications  

16 Ethical Decision Making 327
Ethical Imperatives 331

Think Consequences 331
Think Duties 334
Think Virtues 338

Decision Making and Ethical Decision Making 339
Reactive and Reflective Ethical
Decision Making 339

Thinking Through Diverging Ethical Imperatives 342
Prioritize, Create, and Negotiate 342

Establish Priorities 342 •  Create Additional
Options 342 •  Negotiate Based on Each Party’s 
Interests 343 •  Personal Consistency and Respect for 
Others 343 •  Apply the “Golden Rule”—Do Unto Others As You 
Would Have Others Do Unto You  344

Summing up this chapter  •  Key Concepts  •  Applications  

17 The Logic of Declarative Statements 349
Declarative Statements 352

Simple Statements 352
Negations 353
Statement Compounds: And, Or, If . . . Then, etc. 354

Conjunctions 354  •  Disjunctions  355  •  Conditionals 357

Translating Between Symbolic Logic and a Natural
Language 360

Grammatically Correct Expressions 360
Translation to English 360
Translating to Symbolic Logic 361

Example: Translating a Telephone Tree 362  •  What the
Telephone Tree Example Teaches about Translation 362

Detecting the Logical Characteristics
of Statements 363

Building Truth Tables 364
Tautologies, Inconsistent Statements, and
Contingent Statements 367

Testing for Implication and Equivalence 368

Evaluating Arguments for Validity 370
Testing Symbolic Arguments for Validity 370
Testing Natural Language Arguments
for Validity 373
Summing up this chapter  •  Key Concepts  •  Applications 

Appendix: Extend Argument-Decision
Mapping Strategies 377

Glossary 386

Endnotes 389

Credits 405

Index 409

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x

J
ust as teaching and learning critical thinking is a
collaboration, so is putting together all the words,
images, exercises, video clips, page layouts, and digital

materials for THINK Critically. This project could not
have happened were it not for the wonderful participa-
tion, support, and guidance of a great many people.

The biggest thank you of all goes to my co-author,
Carol Gittens, Associate Dean of the College of Arts and
Sciences at Santa Clara University. Every chapter ben-
efits from her hard work, her humane sensitivity, her in-
sights, and her attention to the finer points of authoring
for learning. Dr. Gittens authored the Instructor’s Manual,
a wonderful resource that offers strategies on teaching for
thinking.

This third edition benefited from Benjamin Hamby’s
insightful, positive, and helpfully detailed review of the
second edition and from many follow-up conversations
during the drafting of this edition. You may download
Dr. Hamby’s review of Think Critically from academia.edu.

It was again a pleasure be working with the people
at Pearson Education. Carol and I are grateful to every-
one, including the publisher, the marketing director, the
permissions and images people, the designers, the copy-
editors, and many more. Our project directors, Melissa
Sacco, Richard DeLorenzo, and Veronica Grupico deserve
special thanks. We thank our senior editor, Debbie Coni-
glio, for her singular drive and vision, and for bringing a
plethora of digital assets and resources to Think Critically.

Co-author Peter writes, “Good ideas come from
thinking and discussing things with other people. Great
ideas come when that other person happens to be brilliant
and wise. The ideas in this book come from a lifetime of
those kinds of experiences, but mostly from talking and
thinking with the one brilliant and amazing person who
has shared that lifetime with me. Through her words and
ideas, she contributed inestimably to this book, to other
books, to a myriad of projects both professional and do-
mestic, and to every other part of my life. No ‘thank you’
can do justice to all that I owe to her. But let me say it any-
way. Thank you, Noreen.”

Co-author Carol Gittens writes, “When Pete asked
me to join him as a main author of the second and sub-
sequent editions, I jumped at the opportunity to add my
voice to a text that is designed to nurture students’ critical
thinking skills and habits of minds, not only to promote
success in the academic arena, but to promote success in
life. I would like to express my gratitude to my long-time
research colleague and professional mentor Peter Facione
and by extension his wife and fellow colleague, Noreen,
for extending our scholarly partnership to include this
project. Even more importantly, I want to acknowledge
and thank my wonderful husband William who sup-
ported me unconditionally even when my efforts on this
book required more of my attention than he or our chil-
dren would have wished to share.”

Acknowledgments

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xi

I
n “Forever Young” songwriter Bob Dylan expressed
our hopes for all who learn with and teach with
THINK Critically. What more could we wish for one

another than we all should seek to know the truth, walk in
the light of well-trained reason, be courageous, have the
intellectual integrity to stand strong, and that, no matter
what our chronological age, that we should stay mentally
forever young?

This book aims to strengthen critical thinking skills
and nurture the courageous desire to seek truth by fol-
lowing reasons and evidence wherever they lead. We
all may have different beliefs, values, perspectives, and
experiences influencing our problem solving and deci-
sion making. But we share the human capacity to be
reflective, analytical, open-minded, and systematic about
thinking through our problems and choices, so that we
can make the best judgments possible about what to
believe or what to do. That process of well- reasoned,
reflective judgment is critical thinking. Exercising our
critical thinking helps our minds become stronger,
healthier, and more youthful.

Our approach, proven successful by us and by oth-
ers, is simple, practical, and focused. To strengthen criti-
cal thinking skills, we have to use them. To build positive
critical thinking habits of mind, we have to see critical
thinking as the optimal approach for solving real-world
problems and making important decisions. Every chap-
ter of this book builds critical thinking skills and engages
critical thinking habits of mind in every way possible.
Why? Because we believe with every fiber of our beings
that critical thinking is all about real life, and so the very
best way to build strong critical thinking is to use engag-
ing material from the widest possible range of real-life
situations.

“Knowing about” is not the same as “using.” It is
more important that a person learn how to use critical
thinking to make the best judgments possible than that
the person memorize gobs of technical vocabulary and
theory about critical thinking. Yes, learning about critical
thinking certainly can expedite things. But engaging in
critical thinking is the payoff. That is why there are hun-
dreds of exercises of many different kinds woven into the
written text and each chapter ’s digital learning support
assets. There is no substitute for learning by doing. So,
here’s a plan:

Chapters 1 and 2 explain what critical thinking
is, why it is so vitally important to all of us, and how
critical thinking connects to our academic studies and

to our personal, professional, and civic lives. Chapter 3
builds immediately on the theme of the practical value
of critical thinking by describing the IDEAS approach to
problem solving and then applying that approach to the
kinds of problems typically encountered by college stu-
dents of all ages.

Chapters 4–9 are building block chapters, each
addressing one or another of the core critical thinking
skills in the context of real-world applications. Chapters 4
and 5 focus on the skills of interpretation and analysis;
when we can understand what people are saying, we
can articulate the reasons being advanced on behalf of
a particular claim or choice. Without these vital critical
thinking skills we wander in a cloud of confusion, not
really knowing what things might mean or why people,
including ourselves, think what they think. Chapters 6,
7, 8, and 9 focus on the skill of evaluation as applied to
the truthfulness of claims, the trustworthiness of so-called
experts, and the quality of arguments.

Chapters 10 and 11 connect critical thinking to con-
temporary understandings of human decision making.
Illustrating the risks and the benefits of our heuristically
driven snap judgments and releasing ourselves from
the grip that our past decisions can have on our current
thinking are the two purposes of Chapter 10. Chapter 11,
by contrast, provides multiple strategies for approaching
decision making reflectively. Together these two chap-
ters emphasize the essential critical thinking skills of
self- monitoring and self-correction, along with the habits
foresight, open-mindedness, and truth seeking

The three most important chapters of this book are 12,
13, and 14. Why? Because comparative reasoning, ideo-
logical reasoning, and empirical reasoning are the three
most widely used methods human beings have for sup-
plying reasons on behalf of their beliefs and ideas. With
real-world examples, some that are disturbing in fact,
these three chapters focus on the core critical thinking
skills of inference and explanation, because drawing con-
clusions and explaining one’s reasons, even to one’s self,
in real life are products of our comparative, ideological,
and empirical reasoning.

Chapters 15 through 19 are joyful explorations of the
diverse applications of critical thinking—in writing, in
ethical decision making, in logic, in the social sciences,
and in the natural sciences. Thinking like professionals,
instead of simply studying about them or trying to memo-
rize what they may have said, is way more fun, and much
more effective learning.

Preface

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xii preface

We authors offer all who encounter THINK Critically
this Dylanesque blessing: That you should have a strong
foundation, even in the shifting winds of change, that joy
should fill your heart and learning guide your life, and,
of course, that by using your mind to reflect on what to
believe and what to do, that you should make good deci-
sions and stay forever young.

Instructor Resources
Additional resources found in the Instructor Resource
Center include the following:

• Critical Thinking in the Social Sciences

• Critical Thinking in the Natural Sciences

• PowerPoint Presentations

• Test Bank

• Chapter Opener Videos

• Chapter Review Videos

• …

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