Chat with us, powered by LiveChat One of the seminal studies and theories related to change management is Kurt Lewin’s Change Theory. - Study Help

One of the seminal studies and theories related to change management is Kurt Lewin’s Change Theory. Components of his work are identified in many other theories, so understanding this theory offers insight into the change management process. In this assignment, provide a brief overview of Lewin’s Change Theory, including his rationale for creating this theory and the intended role this model addresses in change management. Then discuss the three stages of change implementation and explain the importance of each stage. Be sure to use the terminology for each stage of Lewin’s Change Theory as outlined in the text. Finally, Lewin’s Change Theory was created in the 1940s. Is the theory still applicable in today’s global economy? How would you modify/alter his theory to ensure that it remains relevant and applicable in Saudi Arabia? Discuss any changes to be made to his theory to reflect today’s business environment, both globally and in Saudi Arabia.Your well-written paper should meet the following requirements:

Be 4 pages in length, which does not include the title page and reference pages, which are never a part of the content minimum requirements.
APA style guidelines.
Support your submission with course material concepts, principles, and theories from the textbook and at least three scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles.
Each paragraph should have headline

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Total points possible = 100



Organizational Change
Fourth Edition


This book is dedicated to Tupper Cawsey,

our dear and wonderful friend, colleague, and
extraordinary educator.

He passed away, but his positive impact continues to
reverberate in those he touched.

Thank you, Tupper.

Gene and Cynthia



Organizational Change

An Action-Oriented Toolkit

Fourth Edition

Gene Deszca
Wilfrid Laurier University

Cynthia Ingols
Simmons University
Tupper F. Cawsey

Wilfrid Laurier University

Los Angeles

New Delhi

Washington DC





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Printed in the United States of America

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Deszca, Gene, author. | Ingols, Cynthia, author. | Cawsey, T. F., author/

Title: Organizational change : an action-oriented toolkit / Gene Deszca, Wilfrid
Laurier University, Canada, Cynthia Ingols – Simmons College, USA, Tupper F.
Cawsey – Wilfrid Laurier University, Canada.

Other titles: Organisational change

Description: Fourth Edition. | Thousand Oaks : SAGE Publications, [2019] |
Revised edition of Organizational change, [2016] | Includes bibliographical
references and index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2019013498 | ISBN 9781544351407 (paperback)

Subjects: LCSH: Organizational change.

Classification: LCC HD58.8 .C39 2019 | DDC 658.4/06—dc23

LC record available at

Acquisitions Editor: Maggie Stanley

Editorial Assistant: Janeane Calderon

Production Editor: Gagan Mahindra

Copy Editor: Lynne Curry

Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.

Proofreader: Rae-Ann Goodwin

Indexer: Mary Mortensen

Cover Designer: Candice Harman

Marketing Manager: Sarah Panella



Brief Contents
1. Preface
2. Acknowledgments
3. Chapter 1 • Changing Organizations in Our Complex World
4. Chapter 2 • How to Lead Organizational Change:

5. Chapter 3 • What to Change in an Organization: Frameworks
6. Chapter 4 • Building and Energizing the Need for Change
7. Chapter 5 • Navigating Change through Formal Structures

and Systems
8. Chapter 6 • Navigating Organizational Politics and Culture
9. Chapter 7 • Managing Recipients of Change and Influencing

Internal Stakeholders
10. Chapter 8 • Becoming a Master Change Agent
11. Chapter 9 • Action Planning and Implementation
12. Chapter 10 • Get and Use Data Throughout the Change

13. Chapter 11 • The Future of Organizations and the Future of

14. Notes
15. Index
16. About the Authors



Detailed Contents
Chapter 1 • Changing Organizations in Our Complex World

Defining Organizational Change
The Orientation of This Book

Environmental Forces Driving Change Today
The Implications of Worldwide Trends for Change

Four Types of Organizational Change
Planned Changes Don’t Always Produce the
Intended Results

Organizational Change Roles
Change Initiators
Change Implementers
Change Facilitators
Common Challenges for Managerial Roles
Change Recipients

The Requirements for Becoming a Successful Change
Key Terms
End-of-Chapter Exercises

Chapter 2 • How to Lead Organizational Change:

Differentiating How to Change from What to Change
The Processes of Organizational Change
(1) Stage Theory of Change: Lewin

Refreeze: or more appropriately Re-gell

(2) Stage Model of Organizational Change: Kotter
Kotter’s Eight-Stage Process

(3) Giving Voice to Values: Gentile
GVV and Organizational Change

(4) Emotional Transitions Through Change: Duck
Duck’s Five-Stage Change Curve

(5) Managing the Change Process: Beckhard and Harris


(6) The Change Path Model: Deszca and Ingols
Application of the Change Path Model

Awakening: Why Change?
Mobilization: Activating the Gap Analysis
Acceleration: Getting from Here to There
Institutionalization: Using Data to Help Make the
Change Stick

Key Terms
End-of-Chapter Exercises

➡ Case Study: “Not an Option to Even Consider:”
Contending With the Pressures to Compromise by
Heather Bodman and Cynthia Ingols

Chapter 3 • What to Change in an Organization: Frameworks
Open Systems Approach to Organizational Analysis
(1) Nadler and Tushman’s Congruence Model

History and Environment
The Transformation Process
The Formal Organization
The Informal Organization
An Example Using Nadler and Tushman’s
Congruence Model
Evaluating Nadler and Tushman’s Congruence

(2) Sterman’s Systems Dynamics Model
(3) Quinn’s Competing Values Model
(4) Greiner’s Model of Organizational Growth
(5) Stacey’s Complexity Theory
Key Terms
End-of-Chapter Exercises

➡ Case Study: Sarah’s Snacks by Paul Myers
Chapter 4 • Building and Energizing the Need for Change

Understanding the Need for Change
Seek Out and Make Sense of External Data


Seek Out and Make Sense of the Perspectives of
Seek Out and Make Sense of Internal Data
Seek Out and Assess Your Personal Concerns and

Assessing the Readiness for Change
Heightening Awareness of the Need for Change
Factors That Block People from Recognizing the
Need for Change

Developing a Powerful Vision for Change
The Difference Between an Organizational Vision and a
Change Vision
Examples of Visions for Change

IBM—Diversity 3.0
Tata’s Nano: From Vision to Failed Project
Change Vision for the “Survive to 5” Program
Change Vision for “Reading Rainbow”
Change Vision for a Large South African Winemaker
Change Vision for the Procurement System in a
Midsize Manufacturing Firm

Key Terms
A Checklist for Change: Creating the Readiness for
End-of-Chapter Exercises

➡ Case Study: Leading Change: The Pharmacy
Team by Jess Coppla

Chapter 5 • Navigating Change through Formal Structures
and Systems

Making Sense of Formal Structures and Systems
Impact of Uncertainty and Complexity on Formal
Structures and Systems
Formal Structures and Systems From an Information

Aligning Systems and Structures With the
Structural Changes to Handle Increased Uncertainty
Making Formal Structural Choices

Using Structures and Systems to Influence the Approval
and Implementation of Change


Using Formal Structures and Systems to Advance
Using Systems and Structures to Obtain Formal
Approval of a Change Project
Using Systems to Enhance the Prospects for
Ways to Approach the Approval Process

Aligning Strategically, Starting Small, and “Morphing”
The Interaction of Structures and Systems with Change
During Implementation
Using Structures and Systems to Facilitate the
Acceptance of Change
Key Terms
Checklist: Change Initiative Approval
End-of-Chapter Exercises

➡ Case Study: Beck Consulting Corporation by
Cynthia Ingols and Lisa Brem

Chapter 6 • Navigating Organizational Politics and Culture
Power Dynamics in Organizations

Individual Power
Departmental Power

Organizational Culture and Change
How to Analyze a Culture
Tips for Change Agents to Assess a Culture

Tools to Assess the Need for Change
Identifying the Organizational Dynamics at Play

Key Terms
Checklist: Stakeholder Analysis
End-of-Chapter Exercises

➡ Case Study: Patrick’s Problem by Stacy Blake-

Chapter 7 • Managing Recipients of Change and Influencing
Internal Stakeholders

Stakeholders Respond Variably to Change Initiatives
Not Everyone Sees Change as Negative

Responding to Various Feelings in Stakeholders


Positive Feelings in Stakeholders: Channeling Their
Ambivalent Feelings in Stakeholders: They Can Be
Negative Reactions to Change by Stakeholders:
These Too Can Be Useful

Make the Change of the Psychological Contract Explicit
and Transparent

Predictable Stages in the Reaction to Change
Stakeholders’ Personalities Influence Their
Reactions to Change
Prior Experience Impacts a Person’s and
Organization’s Perspective on Change
Coworkers Influence Stakeholders’ Views
Feelings About Change Leaders Make a Difference

Integrity is One Antidote to Skepticism and Cynicism
Avoiding Coercion but Pushing Hard: The Sweet Spot?
Creating Consistent Signals from Systems and
Steps to Minimize the Negative Effects of Change

Two-Way Communication

Make Continuous Improvement the Norm
Encourage People to Be Change Agents and Avoid the
Recipient Trap
Key Terms
Checklist: How to Manage and Minimize Cynicism About
End-of-Chapter Exercises

➡ Case Study: Travelink Solutions by Noah Deszca
and Gene Deszca

Chapter 8 • Becoming a Master Change Agent
Factors That Influence Change Agent Success

The Interplay of Personal Attributes, Situation,
and Vision
Change Leaders and Their Essential

Developing into a Change Leader


Intention, Education, Self-Discipline, and
What Does Reflection Mean?

Developmental Stages of Change Leaders
Four Types of Change Leaders
Internal Consultants: Specialists in Change
External Consultants: Specialized, Paid Change

Provide Subject-Matter Expertise
Bring Fresh Perspectives from Ideas That Have
Worked Elsewhere
Provide Independent, Trustworthy Support
Limitations of External Consultants

Change Teams
Change from the Middle: Everyone Needs to Be a
Change Agent
Rules of Thumb for Change Agents
Key Terms
Checklist: Structuring Work in a Change Team
End-of-Chapter Exercises

➡ Case Study: Master Change Agent:
Katherine Gottlieb, Southcentral Foundation by
Erin E. Sullivan

Chapter 9 • Action Planning and Implementation
Without a “Do It” Orientation, Things Won’t Happen
Prelude to Action: Selecting the Correct Path
Plan the Work

Engage Others in Action Planning
Ensure Alignment in Your Action Planning

Action Planning Tools
1. To-Do Lists
2. Responsibility Charting
3. Contingency Planning
4. Flow Charting
5. Design Thinking
6. Surveys and Survey Feedback
7. Project Planning and Critical Path Methods
8. Tools to Assess Forces That Affect Outcomes
and Stakeholders


9. Leverage Analysis
10. Employee Training and Development
11. Diverse Change Approaches

Working the Plan Ethically and Adaptively
Developing a Communication Plan
Timing and Focus of Communications
Key Principles in Communicating for Change
Influence Strategies

Transition Management
Key Terms
End-of-Chapter Exercises

➡ Case Study: Turning Around Cote
Construction Company by Cynthia Ingols, Gene
Deszca, and Tupper F. Cawsey

Chapter 10 • Get and Use Data Throughout the Change

Selecting and Deploying Measures
1. Focus on Key Factors
2. Use Measures That Lead to Challenging but
Achievable Goals
3. Use Measures and Controls That Are
Perceived as Fair and Appropriate
4. Avoid Sending Mixed Signals
5. Ensure Accurate Data
6. Match the Precision of the Measure With the
Ability to Measure

Measurement Systems and Change Management
Data Used as Guides During Design and Early
Stages of the Change Project
Data Used as Guides in the Middle of the
Change Project
Data Used as Guides Toward the End of the
Change Project

Other Measurement Tools
Strategy Maps
The Balanced Scorecard
Risk Exposure Calculator
The DICE Model



Key Terms
Checklist: Creating a Balanced Scorecard
End-of-Chapter Exercises

➡ Case Study: Omada Health: Making the
Case for Digital Health by Erin E. Sullivan and
Jessica L. Alpert

Chapter 11 • The Future of Organizations and the Future
of Change

Putting the Change Path Model into Practice
Future Organizations and Their Impact
Becoming an Organizational Change Agent:
Specialists and Generalists
Paradoxes in Organizational Change
Orienting Yourself to Organizational Change
End-of-Chapter Exercises

About the Authors



Preface to the Fourth Edition
Difficult to see. Always in motion
is the future.1

1 Spoken by Yoda in the movie The Empire Strikes Back

The world has continued to churn in very challenging ways since
the publishing of the third edition of this text. Uneven and shifting
global patterns of growth, stubbornly high unemployment levels in
many parts of the world, increasing income inequality, and serious
trade disputes that threaten to transform trade patterns are
severely stressing our highly interconnected global economy. The
massive credit crisis of a decade ago was followed by
unprecedented worldwide government stimulus spending and low
interest rates to promote growth, which, in turn, have resulted in
escalating public debt, exacerbated in some nations through tax
cuts. These combine to threaten the capacity of national
governments to respond to future economic difficulties.

In addition, wars, insurrections and civil insurrections in parts of
Africa, the Ukraine, the Middle East, and Asia have sent masses
of people searching for safety in new places. Simultaneously,
deteriorating international relationships involving major powers,
fears of global pandemics (Ebola and MERS), and the staying
power of radical Islamist groups such as al-Qaeda and ISIS
affiliates, Boko Haram and Jemaah Islamiyah have shaken all
organizations in affected regions—big or small, public or private.
Escalating concerns related to global warming, species
extinctions, and rising sea levels are stressing those who
recognize the problems in governments and organizations of all
shapes and sizes, as they attempt to figure out how to
constructively address these emerging realities. Add to these
elements the accelerating pace of technological change and it’s
easy to see why we, at times, feel overwhelmed by the
turbulence, uncertainty, and negative prognosis that seem to
define the present.


But, all is not doom and gloom. Progress on human rights and
gender equity, reductions in extreme poverty and hunger,
declining rates of murder and violent crime, improving rates of
literacy and life expectancy, and increasing access to information
and knowledge through affordable digital resources provide
evidence that progress is being made on some fronts. The
growing public willingness to tackle very difficult environmental
and social issues now, not later, are combining with innovative
technologies, creative for-profit and not-for-profit organizations,
and forward-thinking politicians and leaders from all walks of life.
Supportive public policies are combining with public and private
initiatives to demonstrate that we can make serious progress on
these issues, if we collectively choose to act in constructive and
thoughtful manners locally, regionally, and globally. These factors
have also made us, your authors, much more aware of the
extreme influence of the external environment on the internal
workings of all organizations.

As we point out in our book, the smallest of firms needs to adapt
when new competitive realities and opportunities surface. Even
the largest and most successful of firms have to learn how to
adapt when disruptive technologies or rapid social, economic,
political and environmental changes alter their realities. If they fail
to do so, they will falter and potentially fail.

Our models have always included and often started with events
external to organizations. We have always argued that change
leaders need to scan their environments and be aware of trends
and crises in those environments. The events of the past two
years have reinforced even more our sense of this. Managers
must be sensitive to what happens around them, know how to
make sense of this, and then have the skills and abilities that will
allow them to both react effectively to the internal and external
challenges and remain constant in their visions and dreams of
how to make their organizations and the world a better place to

A corollary of this is that organizations need a response capability
that is unprecedented because we’re playing on a global stage of
increasing complexity and uncertainty. If you are a bank, you need


a capital ratio that would have been unprecedented a few years
ago, and you need to be working hard to understand the potential
implications of blockchain technologies, regulatory changes, and
changing consumer preferences on the future of banking. If you
are a major organization, you need to design flexibility and
adaptability into your structures, policies, and plans. If you are a
public-sector organization, you need to be sensitive to how
capricious granting agencies or funders will be when revenues dry
up. In today’s world, organizational resilience, adaptability, and
agility gain new prominence.

Further, we are challenged with a continuing reality that change is
endemic. All managers need to be change managers. All good
managers are change leaders. The management job involves
creating, anticipating, encouraging, engaging others, and
responding positively to change. This has been a theme of this
book that continues. Change management is for everyone.
Change management emerges from the bottom and middle of the
organization as much as from the top. It will be those key leaders
who are embedded in the organization who will enable the needed
adaptation of the organization to its environment. Managers of all
stripes need to be key change leaders.

In addition to the above, we have used feedback on the third
edition to strengthen the pragmatic orientation that we had
developed. The major themes of action orientation, analysis tied
with doing, the management of a nonlinear world, and the bridging
of the “knowing–doing” gap continue to be central themes. At the
same time, we have tried to shift to a more user friendly, action
perspective. To make the material more accessible to a diversity
of readers, some theoretical material has been altered, some of
our models have been clarified and simplified, and some of our
language and formatting has been modified.

As we stated in the preface to the first edition, our motivation for
this book was to fill a gap we saw in the marketplace. Our
challenge was to develop a book that not only gave prescriptive
advice, “how-to-do-it lists,” but one that also provided up-to-date
theory without getting sidetracked by academic theoretical
complexities. We hope that we have captured the management


experience with change so that our manuscript assists all those
who must deal with change, not just senior executives or
organization development specialists. Although there is much in
this book for the senior executive and organizational development
specialist, our intent was to create a book that would be valuable
to a broad cross section of the workforce.

Our personal beliefs form the basis for the book. Even as
academics, we have a bias for action. We believe that “doing is
healthy.” Taking action creates influence and demands responses
from others. While we believe in the need for excellent analysis,
we know that action itself provides opportunities for feedback and
learning that can improve the action. Finally, we have a strong
belief in the worth of people. In particular, we believe that one of
the greatest sources of improvement is the untapped potential to
be found in the people of all organizations.

We recognize that this book is not an easy read. It is not meant to
be. It is meant as a serious text for those involved in change—that
is, all managers! We hope you find it a book that you will want to
keep and pull from your shelf in the years ahead, when you need
to lead change and you want help thinking it through.

Your authors,

Gene, Cynthia, and Tupper

Note on Instructor Teaching Site

A password-protected instructor’s manual is available at to help instructors plan and teach
their courses. These resources have been designed to help
instructors make the classes as practical and interesting as
possible for students.

PowerPoint Slides capture key concepts and terms for each
chapter for use in lectures and review.

A Test Bank includes multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay
exam questions for each chapter.


Video Resources for each chapter help launch class discussion.

Sample Syllabi, Assignments, and Chapter Exercises as optional
supplements to course curriculum.

Case Studies and teaching notes for each chapter facilitate
application of concepts in real world situations.




We would like to acknowledge the many people who have helped
to make this edition of the book possible. Our colleagues and
students and their reactions to the ideas and materials continue to
be a source of inspiration.

Cynthia would like to thank her colleagues at the School of
Business, Simmons University, Boston, Massachusetts. In
particular, she would like to thank Dr. Stacy Blake-Beard, Deloitte
Ellen Gabriel Chair of Women and Leadership, and Dr. Paul
Myers, senior lecturer, who each contributed a case to this fourth
edition of the book. In addition, Paul graciously read and gave
feedback on other cases and parts of the text, suggesting ways to
bring clarity to sometimes muddled meanings. Alissa Scheibert, a
Simmons library science student, conducted in-depth research for
a number of chapters. Dr. Erin Sullivan, research director, and
Jessica L. Alpert, researcher, Center for Primary Care, Harvard
Medical School, contributed two cases to this edition of the book
and I am very grateful for their contributions. Jess Coppla, a
former Healthcare MBA student leader and author of one of the
cases, will someday be CEO of a healthcare organization. . . . I’m
just waiting to see which one. Colleagues Gary Gaumer, Cathy
Robbins, Bob Coulum, Todd Hermann, Mindy Nitkin, and Mary
Shapiro were wonderful cheerleaders throughout the many hours
of my sitting, writing, and revising in my office: thank you all!

Managers, executives, and front-line employees that we have
known have provided insights, case examples, and applications
while keeping us focused on what is useful and relevant. Ellen
Zane, former CEO of Tufts Medical Center, Boston, is an inspiring
change leader; her turnaround story at the Tufts Medical Center
appeared in the second edition of this book and was published
again in the third edition; it continues to be on the Sage website
for use by faculty. Cynthia has also been fortunate to work with
and learn from Gretchen Fox, founder and former CEO, FOX
RPM: the story of how she changed her small firm appeared in the
second edition of the book and the case continues to be available


through Harvard Business Publishing (
relocation-management-corp/an/NA0096-PDF-ENG). Noah
Deszca, a high school teacher, was the prime author of the
Travelink Solutions case, an organization that underwent
significant changes while he was working there. Katharine
Bambrick, a former student of Gene’s and the CEO of the Ontario
Trillium Foundation and the former CEO of Food Banks Canada,
is another of the inspiring leaders who opened their organizations
to us and allowed us to learn from their experiences, and share it
with you. The Food Banks case appeared in the third edition of
this book and is one of the additional cases that are available on
this book’s website.

Special thanks to Paige Tobie for all her hard work on the
instructors’ resources. She is a gem to work with.

As with the previous editions, our partners Bertha Welzel and
Steve Spitz tolerated our moods, our myopia to other things that
needed doing, and the early mornings and late nights spent on the
manuscript. They helped us work our way through ideas and
sections that were problematic, and they kept us smiling and
grounded when frustration mounted.

Our editors at Sage have been excellent. They moved the project
along and made a difficult process fun (well, most of the time).
Thank you, Maggie Stanley, our acquisitions editor, for keeping us
on task and on time (or trying to keep us on time…). We
appreciate your style of gentle nudges. Thank you to Janeane
Calderon, our editorial assistant who was constantly on top of the
various parts of the book and helped us push through to the end.
Copyeditor Lynne Curry found stray commas and inconsistencies
throughout the book: thank you for fixing the problems. Gagan
Mahindra, Production Editor, kept us wonderfully focused on the
details of production: thank you!

Finally, we would like to recognize the reviewers who provided us
with valuable feedback on the third edition. Their constructive,
positive feedback and their excellent suggestions were valued.
We thought carefully about how to incorporate their suggestions
into this fourth edition of the book. Thank you Mulugeta Agonafer


of Springfield College, Brenda C. Barnes of Allen College, C.
Darren Brooks of Florida State University, Robert Dibie of Indiana
University Kokomo, Jonathan E. Downs of MidAmerica Nazarene
University, Alexander C. Heckman of Franklin University, Scott
Elmes McIntyre of University of Houston – Clear Lake, Frank
Novakowski of Davenport University, Pamela R. Van Dyke of
Southern Methodist University, Jack Wilson of the United States
Naval Academy, and Diana J. Wong-MingJi of Eastern Michigan

In short, our thanks to all who made this book possible.



Chapter One Changing
Organizations in Our Complex

Chapter Overview

The chapter defines organizational change as “planned
alteration of organizational components to improve the
efficiency and effectiveness of organizations.”
The orientation of this book is to assist change leaders—and
potential change managers—in becoming effective in their
change activities.
The social, demographic, technological, political, and economic
forces pushing the need for change are outlined.
Four types of organizational change are discussed: tuning,
adapting, reorienting, and re-creating.
Four change roles found in organizations are described:
change initiators, change implementers, change facilitators, and
change recipients and stakeholders. The terms change leader
and change agent are used interchangeably and could mean
any of the four roles.
The difficulties in creating successful change are highlighted,
and then some of the characteristics of successful change
leaders are described.

Organizations fill our world. We place our children into day care,
seek out support services for our elderly, and consume
information and recreational services supplied by other
organizations. We work at for-profit or not-for-profit organizations.
We rely on organizations to deliver the services we need: food,
water, electricity, and sanitation and look to governmental
organizations for a variety of services that we hope will keep us
safe, secure, well governed, and successful. We depend on
health organizations when we are sick. We use religious
organizations to help our spiritual lives. We assume that most of
our children’s education will be delivered by formal educational
organizations. In other words, organizations are everywhere.
Organizations are how we get things done. This is not just a


human phenomenon as it extends to plants and animals: look at a
bee colony, a reef, a lion pride, or an elephant herd and you’ll see
organizations at work.

And these organizations are changing—some of them declining
and failing, while others successfully adapt or evolve, to meet the
shifting realities and demands of their environments. What exactly
is organizational change? What do we mean when we talk about


Defining Organizational Change
When we think of organizational change, we think of major
changes: mergers, acquisitions, buyouts, downsizing,
restructuring, the launch of new products, and the outsourcing of
major organizational activities. We can also think of lesser
changes: departmental reorganizations, installations of new
technology and incentive systems, shutting particular
manufacturing lines, or opening new branches in other parts of the
country—fine-tuning changes to improve the efficiency and
effectiveness of our organizations.

In this book, when we talk about organizational change, we refer
to planned alterations of organizational components to improve
the effectiveness or efficiency of the organization. Organizational
components are the organizational mission, vision, values,
culture, strategy, goals, structure, processes or systems,
technology, and people in an organization. When …

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